-illness depends on how the bacteria enters the body
-symptoms take 1 day-2 months to appear
CUTANEOUS:: blisters, bumps, itching, swelling, skin ulcer, without treatment 20% mortality rate
INHALATION: fever, chills, cough, shortness of breath, GI symptoms, headaches, heavy sweats, fatigue, confusion, dizziness, 10-15% survive without treatment
GI: fever, chills, swelling of lymph nodes, sore throat, nausea, vomiting blood, diarrhea or bloody diarrhea, flushing, red eyes, abdominal pain, abdominal distension, under 50% survive without treatment
AT RISK: mail workers, veterinarians, livestock producers, travelers, laboratory professionals
BIOTERRORISM: anthrax could easily be released in food, air, and water, it is easy to find anthrax in the environment, and it lasts for a long time, it has been used as a weapon before, tier 1 toxin.
TREATMENT: antibiotics, antitoxins,
-found in rodents, rabbits and hares
SYMPTOMS: sudden fever, chills, headaches, diarrhea, muscle aches, join pain, dry cough, progressive weakness, could develop pneumonia, ulcers, or swollen lymph glands, symptoms appear 3-5 days (even up to 14 days) after exposure
SPREAD: bitten by an infected insect, handling a contaminated carcass, eating or drinking infected water/food, inhalation
BIOTERRORISM: would likely be spread in the air
TRANSMISSION: face-to-face contact, direct contact with infected body fluids or contaminated objects, may be spread in the air. People are most contagious with the onset of rash
INCUBATION PERIOD: no symptoms, usually 12-14 days, not contagious
PRODROMAL: fever, malaise, head and body aches, sometimes vomiting, high fever (101-104), lasts 2-4 days
EARLY RASH: rash appears as small red spots, break out and spread the virus into the mouth/throat, most contagious, spreading to other parts of the body, person usually feels better and the fever falls, by 3rd day, rash becomes raised bumps, by fourth day, bumps are filled with fluid. Fever rises and remains high until scabs form over the bumps. Total lasts 4 days
PUSTULAR RASH: bumps become pustules, as if there is a small round object under the skin. Lasts 5 days.
PUSTULES AND SCABS: pustules form a crust and scab, lasts 5 days
RESOLVING SCABS: scabs fall off and leave pitted scars, 6 days, person is contagious until all the scabs fall off
TREATMENT: pre and post-event vaccination, antibiotics, symptomatic treatment
-round in rodents and fleas
-could be used as an aerosoled attack,
-develop pneumonic plague 6 days after being exposed, begin treatment within 7 days of exposure
SYMPTOMS: fever, weakness, rapidly developing pneumonia and shortness of breath, chest pain, cough, bloody or watery sputum, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain. If not treated quickly, could lead to respiratory failure, shock, and death
TREATMENT: take antibiotics for at least 7 days, begin within 24 hours of symptoms (doxycycline or ciprofloxacin). There is no vaccine available.
DIAGNOSIS: sample of blood, sputum, or lymph node aspirate, confirmation could take 24-48 hours.
-caused by the bacteria Coxiella burnetii
-reservoirs include cattle, sheep, and goats, in milk/urine/feces
-can survive for a long period in the environment and is resistant to disinfectants
-infection for humans usually comes from inhalation, tick bites, consuming unpasteurized milk/dairy products
-human-to-human transmission is rare
SYMPTOMS: develop within 2-3 weeks of exposure, high fevers (up to 104-105), severe headache, general malaise, myalgia, chills and/or sweats, non-productive cough, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, chest pain
TREATMENT: doxycycline is first-line treatment, should be treated within first 3 days of disease