chapter 13: personality

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Terms in this set (...)

personality
a person's characteristic thoughts, emotional responses, and behaviors
personality traits
a pattern of thought, emotion, and behavior that is relatively consistent over time and across situations
temperaments
biologically based tendencies to feel or act in certain ways
3 types of temperaments
1. activity level
2. emotionality
3. sociability
psychodynamic theory
the freudian theory that unconscious forces determine behavior
id
the component of personality that is completely submerged in the unconscious and operates according to the pleasure principle
superego
the internalization of societal and parental standards of conduct
ego
the component of personality that tries to satisfy the wishes of the id while being responsive to the dictates of the superego
defense mechanisms
unconscious mental strategies that the mind uses to protect itself from anxiety
denial
refusing to acknowledge source of anxiety
repression
excluding source of anxiety from awareness
projection
attributing unacceptable qualities of the self to someone else
reaction formation
warding off an uncomfortable thought by overemphasizing its opposite
rationalization
concocting a seemingly logical reason or excuse for behavior that might otherwise be shameful
displacement
shifting the attention of emotion from one object to another
sublimation
channeling socially unacceptable impulses into constructive, even admirable behaviors
psychosexual stages
developmental stages that correspond to distinct libidinal urges; progression through these stages profoundly affects personality
humanistic approaches
approaches to studying personality that emphasize how people seek to fulfill their potential through greater self-understanding
trait approach
focuses on how individuals differ in personality dispositions
5 factor theory
the idea that personality can be described using 5 factors: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism
behavioral approach system (BAS)
the brain system involved in the pursuit of incentives or rewards
behavioral inhibition system (BIS)
the brain system that is sensitive to punishment and therefore inhibits behavior that might lead to danger or pain
situationism
the theory that behavior is determined more by situations than by personality traits
interactionists
theorists who believe that behavior is determined jointly by situations and underlying dispositions
idiographic approaches
person-centered approaches to assessing personality; they focus on individual lives and how various characteristics are integrated into unique persons
nomothetic approaches
approaches to assessing personality that focus on how common characteristics vary from person to person
projective measures
personality tests that examine unconscious processes by having people interpret ambiguous stimuli
self-esteem
the evaluative aspect of the self-concept in which people feel worthy or unworthy
sociometer
an internal monitor of social acceptance or rejection
self-serving bias
the tendency for people to take personal credit for success but blame failure on external factors
organization
indicates that personality is a coherent whole
Gordon Allport
theorized that in order to have a full understanding of someone's personality, you needed to look at their personal trait
Abraham Maslow
humanistic psychology; hierarchy of needs-needs at a lower level dominate an individual's motivation as long as they are unsatisfied; self-actualization, transcendence
Anna Freud
1895-1982; Field: psychoanalysis; Contributions: focused on child psychoanalysis, fully developed defense mechanisms, emphasized importance of the ego and its constant struggle
Carl Jung
1875-1961; Field: neo-Freudian, analytic psychology; Contributions: people had conscious and unconscious awareness; archetypes; collective unconscious; libido is all types of energy, not just sexual; Studies: dream studies/interpretation
Carl Rogers
1902-1987; Field: humanistic; Contributions: founded person-centered therapy, theory that emphasizes the unique quality of humans especially their freedom and potential for personal growth, unconditional positive regard, fully functioning person
B.F. Skinner
1904-1990; Field: behavioral; Contributions: created techniques to manipulate the consequences of an organism's behavior in order to observe the effects of subsequent behavior; Studies: Skinner box
George Kelly
he believed (personal construct theory) our personality consists of our thoughts about ourselves, including our biases, errors, mistakes, and false conclusions
Julian Rotter
Describes his social learning theory as expectancy reinforcement of developed constructs. Learning situations are inextricably fused with needs requiring satisfaction through mediation by other.
Hans Eysenck
personality theorist; asserted that personality is largely determined by genes, used introversion/extroversion
Karen Horney
neo-Freudian, psychodynamic; criticized Freud, stated that personality is molded by current fears and impulses, rather than being determined solely by childhood experiences and instincts, neurotic trends; concept of "basic anxiety"
Raymond Cattell
1905-1998; Field: intelligence; Contributions: fluid & crystal intelligence; 3 domains of personality sphere (personality, ability, & motivation), 16 Personality Factors (personality test)
Sigmund Freud
1856-1939; Field: psychoanalytic, personality; Contributions: id/ego/superego, reality and pleasure principles, ego ideal, defense mechanisms (expanded by Anna Freud), psychoanalysis, transference
Walter Mischel
recognized that traits are not necessarily consistent across various situations, but often vary depending upon the circumstances
California Q-Set
A set of 100 descriptive items (e.g., "is critical, skeptical, not easily impressed") that comprehensively cover the personality domain. (page 211)
NEO personality inventory
A test that measures the Big Five traits: extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism
Rorschach inkblot test
A projective assessment that involves participants being presented with a series of cards that have blots of ink on them one at a time in a specific order. Participants must explain what they see and their response is interpreted by the test administrator
Thematic Apperception Test
A projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes.