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CEI Exam #3
Terms in this set (143)
What are the dominant energy sources globally?
The dominant energy sources are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
What are the dominant energy sources among highly developed countries?
The dominant energy sources are petroleum and natural gas.
What are the dominant energy sources among less developed countries?
The dominant energy source is biomass.
How does use of renewable resources compare to nonrenewable resources globally, in highly developed countries, and in less developed countries?
Less developed countries tend to use more organic renewable resources, whereas highly developed countries tend to rely more heavily on fossil fuels. However, advanced technologies in highly developed countries make their renewable practices more efficient.
Which country has the highest energy consumption?
Early it was the U.S., but China recently surpassed the U.S. due to industrialization occurring in the nation.
What type of countries have the highest consumption rate per capita and what influences this?
Highly developed countries and wealthier countries have the highest per capita consumption rates.
-Due to higher standards of living, affluence, increased technology, high levels of consumption, and climate within the nation lies.
-consider the IPAT model
What are the main uses of energy globally?
transit, residential, industrial
What are the main uses of energy in the U.S.?
-Transit, but less than global average due to increasing efficiency in vehicles
-Residential, but higher than global average to do increased populations, sprawl, and urbanization
How is global energy use changing?
Energy use has gone down.
Why has energy use decreased?
More efficient management of energy sources, energy saving buildings, more efficient use of resources.
How do we encourage consumers to use energy efficiently?
-Make efficient appliances available
-Encourage use through rebates, tax breaks, or giveaways
How does efficient energy use benefit consumers?
They save money when they use energy more efficiently.
How does efficient energy use benefit producers?
Lowers cost of production when consumers are efficient with energy they provide.
How does solar power compare to fossil fuels?
-Creates some pollution through production
-Contributions to global climate change by small CO2 levels
-No contribution to acid rain
-PV cells don't last forever
-Not very efficient
-Less waste, other than panel disposal
- Solar supply is unlimited
-Solar is the most renewable
-High land consumption and impact on habitats
How do we produce hydroelectric power?
A dam is built and water is released at a maintained level, when the water is moved it turns generators that are converted to energy and carried through power lines.
What are the environmental effects of hydropower?
Habitat destruction, increased flooding, disruption of animal spawning, sediment disruption & buildup, displacement of humans & animals, dam failure, greater evaporation
How does hydroelectric power compare to fossil fuels?
-Causes increased evaporation which causes climate change
-No contribution to acid rain
-Competition of uses for water
-Renewability is more limited
-Significant environmental impact
Why does implementing the "best" alternative energy source depend on where you live?
How is wind power generated?
How is the use of wind power changing?
We have moved from practically no use of wind energy to the use of wind energy in almost every part of the nation except for the southeast.
Where is wind power most practical?
Along the middle part of the country (midwest).
What are the benefits of wind power?
Renewable, no pollution, land below can be used for other purposes, can be located offshore
What are drawbacks of wind power?
Requires large land areas, requires constant wind, harms birds, aesthetic impact, noise pollution
How does wind power compare to fossil fuels?
-contribution to global climate change?
energy efficiency? more efficient than fossils
supply? depends on areas
renewability? not going to use it up
environmental and health concerns? noise, aesthetic, weigh importance of effects
How do we use geothermal (heat from the earth) energy?
Warming cool water through the heat of the earth's core. The heat becomes energy through the spinning of turbines.
What are the benefits of geothermal energy?
Large amounts of available energy, may not truly be renewable, minimal air pollution, cheap
What are drawbacks of geothermal energy?
Thermal and chemical pollution, high maintenance of power plans, requires large water supply, location dependence
How does geothermal power compare to fossil fuels?
-global climate change? none
-acid rain? none
-other concerns? water
Energy efficient? more efficient
environmental and health concerns? weigh importance, not a good choice for water quality
What are biomass fuels?
Fuels that are derived from living things or their waste.
how long have we used biomass fuels?
Since the dawn of the human race.
How do we use biomass fuels directly?
Burn them, immediate gratification of heat.
How do we use biomass fuels indirectly?
Take the heat from burning biomass and use that to transform them into other energy forms.
How is the use of biomass fuels in wealthier nations different?
How is wood used as a biomass energy source and what are the effects?
problems: lung and smoke human health effects, contributes to global climate chagne
How is garbage used as a biomass energy source and what are the effects?
Burn trash for energy
-addresses municiple solid waste issues
-relatively renewable, always generating trash
burning trash releases toxins, almost worse than fossils
How are "Waste-to-Energy" plants a common environmental justice issue?
"Not in my backyard" effect
stinky and bad looking
placed in areas of poor or minorities
How is methane gas used as a biomass energy source and what are the effects?
gas made from plant and animal waste
drawbacks are we have high demand
How is Cellulosic Ethanol used as a biomass energy source and what are the effects?
fermented plants made into fuels
benefits: more renewable
drawbacks: cant grow enough to meet demand, raises food prices, earth degradation, land clearing, emmits CO2,
What does the University of Iowa use for heating?
The University used steam to heat buildings and water.
How is steam used at the University Hospital?
Steam is used at the hospital to sterilize medical equipment.
How is the University cooled?
The University buildings are cooled by chilled water plants (42 degree water).
Where does the University purchase it's electricity from?
The University purchases electricity from MidAmerican Energy.
How does "reliability" affect our energy here in Iowa City?
Not so much an issue on campus, but if energy were to shut down at the hospital, it could become a life-or-death situation.
How do energy rates relate to University of Iowa students?
Energy rates relate to students in tuition costs. If it costs more to energize the campus, tuition will be more expensive.
What is the University's "Achieve Net-Negative Energy Growth" goal?
The goal is to consume less energy on campus in 2020 than was consumed in 2010, despite projected growth and expansion.
What is the University's "Green Our Energy Portfolio" goal?
The goal is to achieve 40% renewable energy consumption....
How much energy does the U of I consume compared to my house?
U of I annual energy use is equal to 35,000 homes. Almost equal to all of the homes in the city of Iowa City.
Why doesn't U of I convert to solar?
Solar panels on every rooftop would provide only 12.8% of the energy needs for campus. We don't have enough space to fuel our needs.
Why doesn't U of I convert to wind power?
If a wind farm was built on campus grounds, we would only generate 7.7% of our energy needs.
What are benefits of the University of Iowa's slow switch to biomass?
- It would displace our coal use.
- Would not raise energy prices or tuition.
- Could fund local renewable energy providers.
Why does our Iowa City power plant continue to burn coal even as they're switching to biomass?
There is not enough supply of biomass products to be reliable. Remember, reliability can be life or death.
What is the University of Iowa's annual energy budget?
The University's annual energy budget is $30 million out of a total $3 billion.
What is a barrier the University has in converting to biomass for fuel?
Our boilers were made to burn coal, however, it possible to make adjustments.
How many acres of miscanthus would you need to provide energy for the average Midwest home for one year?
It only takes less than 1 acre of miscanthus to power the average home for one year.
Where does the University get our current wood chip supply?
Scraps from pallet manufacturing.
How much wood chip does the University of Iowa use to create energy? How does this relate to coal?
Over 150 truckloads of wood chips will be used in 2015, which will displace over 100 truckloads of coal.
What other industry competes with the University for oat hulls?
The farming industry also can use oat hulls for animal bedding and are willing to pay more for the product.
How much oat hull does the University of Iowa use to create energy? How does this relate to coal?
Over 1,600 truckloads of oat hulls each year, which will displace 1,000 truckloads of coal.
*the main source of biomass for campus
What are the benefits of fuel pellets to make energy for the University?
-Allows existing equipment to be used without modification
-Fuel pellets make use of non-recyclable industrial byproducts
-Emissions seem to be better that burning traditional biomass
How do biomass fuels compare to fossil fuels?
-Still emit greenhouse gases, maybe more than fossil fuels.
-Contribute less to acid rain than fossils (less than coal, equal to oil)
-May cause pollution through pesticides and fertilizers
-Do not cause more or less pollution, just different kinds.
-Other agriculture might compete for resources needed to grow biomass fuels
-The source is not finite.
-Creates a massive environmental footprint
*renewable, but not less damaging to the environment
Discuss what energy sources you think would be most sustainable for powering the University of Iowa. Be sure you can say why you think this is.
What is the atmosphere composed of?
Layers, particularly the stratosphere and the troposphere.
What gases is the atmosphere made of?
Nitrogen (78%), Oxygen (21%), Argon (.93%), CO2 (.04%)
How do we categorize pollutants?
Source, form, and level of concern.
Why aren't we generally concerned about natural pollutants?
These pollutants are taken up by natural cycles.
When did anthropogenic pollutants begin to notably influence air quality?
Around the start of the Industrial Revolution.
How do natural pollutants differ from antrohopogenic pollutants?
Anthropogenic pollutants are created by humans and there are more of them.
Are we more concerned about anthropogenic pollutants or natural pollutants?
We are more concerned about anthropogenic pollutants because we emit too much of them and they disrupt natural systems.
What are primary pollutants?
Primary pollutants are chemicals that enter the environment in a state about which we are already worried.
-CO2, Carbon Monoxide
What are secondary pollutants?
Secondary pollutants are created when chemicals already emitted into the atmosphere, react and form harmful combinations.
What must be assessed to determine if a pollutant is a criteria pollutant?
What is it? Is it a primary or secondary pollutant? What are the main sources of pollution? What are the effects of concern? How can we control the pollutant?
What is particulate matter? What are some of the concerns associated?
Particulate matter are tiny particles that are spread. They are a secondary and a primary pollutant. The main sources of particulate matter are forest fires, dirt roads and construction. It causes health effects such as problems with breathing and seeing. We can control the spread of particulate matter by added scrubbers and keeping soil in place.
What are some of the concerns related to sulfur oxide?
Sulfur oxide is a primary pollutant and the main source is from burning coal. It causes health and atmospheric effects.
What constitutes rain as "acid rain"?
If the rain is measured as less basic than 5.5
What are concerns associated with acid rain?
Acid rain effects areas downwind of places where pollution is occurring. Acid rain causes the loss of plants, effects species, damages plant tissues, and acidifies soil.
What are some concerns associated with nitrogen oxide?
Nitrogen oxide is a primary pollutant and it is mainly caused by motor emissions. It causes acid rain, greenhouse effect, and health issues. It can be controlled by cutting down on reliance of vehicles.
The atmosphere is composed of what gases?
Nitrogen (78%), Oxygen (21%), Argon (0.93%), Carbon Dioxide (0.4%)
What is the natural greenhouse effect?
Heat comes from the sun through our atmosphere down to earth, some of the heat is re-radiated back to space, but greenhouse gases keep some heat in our atmosphere by acting as a blanket.
What is the anthropogenic greenhouse effect?
It is the heating of the earth due to human processes. It increases the amount of greenhouse gases and makes the earth too hot.
Why are we concerned about the anthropogenic greenhouse effect?
Increased heat caused by human processes changes temperature and alters earth systems.
e.g. ice caps melt, no home for polar bears
What are the anthropogenic greenhouse gases?
Carbon Dioxide, Methane, Nitrous Oxide
What are the sources of anthropogenic greenhouse gases?
Industrial processes, transportation fuels, power stations, agricultural byproducts.
How to primary pollutants enter the atmosphere?
In forms that already cause concern.
e.g. carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide
Why are we concerned about anthropogenic pollutants?
We have released too many, too rapidly and they have started disrupting natural systems.
How to secondary pollutants enter the atmosphere?
They enter naturally and are only a concern when they react to form harmful substances in the atmosphere.
Why is particulate matter a concern?
It is a secondary and primary pollutant that is caused by forest fires, road construction, and gravel roads. It effects breathing and seeing in humans and
Why is sulfur oxide a concern?
It is a primary pollutant as a result of burning coal. sulfur oxide contributes to acid rain and causes health effects.
Why is nitrogen oxide a concern?
It is a primary pollutant caused by vehicle emissions. It causes acid rain and health effects as well as contributing to acid rain.
The formula for ground level ozone is: NOx + ______ + sunlight
Why is ground level ozone a concern?
It is a secondary pollutant caused by vehicle and industry emissions, Ozone is beneficial in the stratosphere but harmful in the troposphere.
Where does photochemical smog come from?
Photochemical smog is formed with NOx reacts with VOCs.
What time of day is photochemical smog the worst?
Photochemical smog is worse in the afternoon due to increased heat and buildup from morning rush hours.
What are the effects of photochemical smog?
It harms air quality, causes health effects like asthma, and harms plant life.
Why is lead a concern?
Lead is a toxic heavy metal and a primary pollutant. Lead is mainly found in gasoline, manufacturing, and can cause major health effects like processing issues, behavioral problems, and reduced IQ.
How does air pollution vary with location?
In the U.S., pollution is heavier in the east and west coasts, particularly southern California. Globally it is the worst in highly developed industrial nations and also in dry areas, due to increased particulate matter such as sand.
How does air pollution vary seasonally?
Air pollution tends to follow a cycle with the season, being higher in warmer seasons and declining in cooler seasons.
How does indoor air become polluted?
Indoor air become polluted by off-gassing of indoor purchases, radon in older homes, tobacco from smoking, and air fresheners.
Are air pollution levels worse indoors or outdoors?
Air pollution levels are higher indoors because the pollutants are trapped and concentrated.
How have humans impacted pollution in the upper atmosphere?
Humans created CFCs, which harm the upper atmosphere immensely by preventing ozone formation.
How is ozone in the stratosphere helpful?
Ozone blocks UV rays which are in general harmful. UV rays harm plant life and cause cancers.
What is climate change?
The gradual increase temperatures the alters normal weather patterns and systems.
What are the two concerns about current climate change?
The pace is more rapid causing the inability of plants and animals to adapt. Also, the current climate change is anthropogenic or human caused.
When did atmospheric CO2 concentrations start to increase?
The industrial revolution was the beginning of anthropogenic CO2 emissions caused by the increased burning of fossil fuels.
How have the oceans changed due to climate change?
They have increased surface temperatures, a rise in average sea level, and a decrease in ocean PH (more acidic).
How has climate change altered weather patterns?
Earlier thawing and freezing in lakes, decreased snowfall, altered precipitation.
How has climate changed altered biota?
Plant hardiness have shifted northward, bird wintering has shifted northward, plants bloom/leaf earlier, and the average growing season has lengthened.
How can we predict progress in climate change?
We can use computational models that use equations to evaluate factors.
Why is it difficult to make predictions about climate?
A lot of data is needed, some things are unforeseen, and consequences aren't linear.
What is the Intergovermental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and what has it predicted?
The IPCC runs immense computations on predicted climate change. After running over 35 different scenarios, all predicted temperature rise in varying severity.
What impacts could climate change have on living things?
It could effect humans by flooding of major systems and changes in water availability. Animals and plants could go extinct and ranges may change, climate change could also result in the loss of a keystone species.
How can we deal with global climate change?
Through adapting over time or through mitigating by creating our own outcome.
What is the primary international policy on climate change?
Through the Kyoto Protocol (1997). Some countries have met their goals and others have actually increased their emissions.
How is the U.S. related to the Kyoto Protocol?
The United States have not ratified the treaty are not participating the act. This is problematic because the U.S. is among the highest polluters.
What is the goal of the 21st Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP21)?
The expected outcome is to legally-bind international agreement on to limit climate change below 2 degree Celsius.
What is sustainability?
Not using resources too quickly while considering future generations, keeping consequences and benefits equitable, meeting current needs, and keeping sanctity of other living things.
What are the three spheres of sustainability?
Environmental, Social, and Economical.
(sub areas: social environmental, environmental economic, and economic social)
How is consumption related to sustainability?
Higher rates of consumption lead to more waste and environmental harm and consuming nonrenewable resources can lead to their extinction.
Can all countries consume like the U.S.?
No, they cannot. The U.S. uses an unequal amount of resources that cause a tremendous amount of consequences to the environment. The ecological footprint of the U.S. illustrates that America consumes at a nonrenewable rate.
The main issues of environmental concern are:
human population, agriculture, food availability, resource consumption, waste generation, urbanization, biodiversity loss, and global climate change.
How can we create a more sustainable world?
The key tools are conserving resources and relying more heavily on renewable resources. Brown recommends eliminating poverty, stabilizing population growth, protecting earth resources, mitigating climate change, and designing sustainable cities.
Why is eliminating poverty pertinent to environmental health?
Eliminating poverty will reduce total fertility rate and increase education among women. Reducing population growth will create a stable use of resources.
Why is protecting and restoring Earth resources pertinent to environmental health?
It allows human populations to live sustainable by reducing use of nonrenewable and protecting renewable resources.
How will providing adequate food for all people help to achieve sustainability?
Improving social and economic factors will make people better able to make the environment a priority.
How will mitigating climate change help achieve sustainability?
Climate change contributes to the rapid consumption of resources, as well as contributes to water and food scarcity.
How will designing sustainable cities help achieve sustainability?
Cities tend to be high consumers and areas of high affluence. Making cities more sustainable will force cities to use resources less rapidly and create more equitable distributions in cities.
Those who live in developed countries are the source of most problems facing the global environment. Why? How can we mitigate this?
Developed countries tend to have the most affluence and power, so they have more availability of resources and more economic power to receive resources. However, they can help solve this by using their power and affluence to change policies and protect the environment.
Over the holidays, you discuss global climate change with your aunt. She insists that climate change isn't real and that, even if it was, it couldn't have an impact on humans. Present an argument that might convince her that climate change is real. Begin by discussing the main process that traps heat in the atmosphere and how humans have altered this process. Then, discuss the evidence that implicates humans causing climate change (at least 3 evidences) and explain how climate change is likely to impact humans (3 evidences).
HEAT TRAPPED IN ATMOSPHERE:
-Surface of earth reflects solar radiation, natural green house gases (CO2, H2O, CH4) ozone in the stratosphere trap heat in atmosphere like a blanket because without it the earth would be too cold.
-Humans impact this be increased CO2 and other GHG emissions and accelerating earth warming but making the blanket bigger.
-human displacement due to rising sea level
-increased mortality from heat (e.g. strokes)
-change in precipitation which causes water scarcity, which causes conflict
-CO2 emission grew exponentially at start of industrial revolution
-as population rises, more CO2 is emitted through more energy use.
-Increased affluence, more CO2 emitted because more people in vehicles.
The University of Iowa wishes to increase the sustainability of its energy use. What is the current plan for doing so? What, in your opinion, are the benefits and drawbacks of this plan? Outline a plan that you think would improve upon the existing plan. Identify how this plan would use SPECIFIC energy sources, technology, and conservation to achieve energy sustainability. Explain how your choices would collectively increase sustainability at UI.
-2 or 3 sentneces about current action
- discuss pros and cons
-outline plan to INCREASE sustainability
- specific energy sources, conservation, technology
*current plan biomass and coal, discuss more
*require turning off machines when not used
-discuss how it will change
Many of the environmental problems we have discussed in class are interrelated. Select three environmental problems. List and describe each and explain their relationship to one another. Outline a hypothetical plan that includes at least one policy (e.g., incentive program, regulation) and at least two practices (e.g., technology, management) that would address all three simultaneously. Be sure to explain all of them.
*resource use, growing population, pollution
HOW ARE THEY RELATED:
-More people having kids and kids are living longer, better technology and more capacity to feed, stable low status of women. Increases resource use because more mouths to feed and more demand of resources (IPAT). Increased resource use causes more pollution because there will be an increase in manufacturing (if coal burning) will increase sulfur oxides, which pollutes air and causes acid rain.
-tax for more than two kids
-require healthcare and retirement plans for elderly (decreases likelihood of parents to have multiple kids so they could take care of them)
-all children must be educated
-increases the status of women allows them to be educated on contraceptives and put off having kids until older, which means less kids.
-developing new technology to accommodate growing populations (decrease pollution, grow more food)
-voluntary simplicity, when people scale back unnecessary resource consumption, it reduces pollution.
What are the criteria pollutants? Explain what these are and list the six criteria pollutants. Then select two of criteria pollutants and describe their sources, negative effects, and at least one means we could use to reduce the amount of each pollutant emitted into the atmosphere.
*pollutants defined how?
*where? why? how?
Why is there no such thing as a local problem anymore?
All issues can be connected in just a few steps. The only way issues can be solved is globally.
Once the earth warms 3.5 degrees, what will happen and what will it cause?
The glacier sheet will melt and sea level will rise 10ft, destroying many coastal cities in many countries.
What happens to CO2 when it is emitted into the atmosphere?
One third of CO2 remains in the atmosphere, the second third is absorbed into the sea, and the final third is absorbed by plants.
What are the primary Green House Gases?
H2O, CO2, Methane, Nitrous Oxide.
What is the main source of methane?
The main source is cattle. They eat carbohydrates and emit methane as byproducts of digestion and breathing.
What is the most dangerous green house gas?
Nitrous Oxide is the most dangerous as it has the most power to trap heat.
How does the way we eat food affect climate change?
Cattle emit methane, machines emit CO2, chemical fertilizers are made out of fossil fuels.
What is the state of the world's forests today and how does this affect climate change?
Naturally 90% forest covered, today it is 7% forest. Removing forests eliminates the possibility that trees can absorb enough carbon, and instead it is absorbed into the ocean and is dissolved, which harms aquatic food chains.
Why are forests disappearing?
Need for oil.
Why is the Keystone Pipeline such a horrible idea and why is that process so difficult?
Establishing the Keystone Pipeline would result in massive deforestation, because the oil is in tar sands that live under the forest. The process of obtaining oil from tar sands is extremely detrimental to the environment, because first the forest must be removed and then carcinogens are put into the soil so it will leach the oil from the sand.
Why would you say, "If you eat a cookie, you're killing the forest."?
Because palm oil, which is harvested from palm trees, is in all process foods, even Oreo cookies.
Cattle emits more __________ than automobiles.
Green House Gases
How does desertification affect climate change?
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