48 terms

Biology Ch. 8

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Chromosomes
Not visible in the cell during interphase; at the beginning of cell division, DNA and the proteins associated with it coil into this structure.
Haploid
An egg has 23 chromosomes. Is it haploid or diploid?
Cytokinesis
When the cell breaks into two; the process during cell division in which the cytoplasm divides
Crossing over
When genetic segments of information are swapped when the chromosomes are next to each other
Centromere
A point where the two chromatids of a chromosome are attached; where spindle fibers and microtubules attach to the chromosome
Metaphase
Phase of mitosis in which chromosomes line up on the equator of the cell
Anaphase
Phase in which chromosomes get split at the centromere
Half
Meiosis results in ____ the number of chromosomes.
Telophase
Phase in which the nuclear membrane begins to form
Mitosis
When one cell divides into two; the process during which the nucleus of a cell is divided into two nuclei
Prophase
Phase of mitosis in which chromatin draws together to create chromosomes
Nuclear membrane
Membrane that breaks down during prophase
Diploid
When a sperm and egg meet (46 chromosomes), is the cell haploid or diploid?
Cancer
The uncontrolled, unregulated cell growth and reproduction
Reduction
A _________ in the amount of genetic material occurs in meiosis.
Interphase
Phase of cellular division that produces reproductive cells; time between cell divisions
Homologous chromosomes
Chromosomes that are similar in size, shape, and genetic content
Oogenesis
One gamete is formed.
Autosomes
The chromosomes not directly involved in determining the sex of an individual
Cell cycle
The repeated sequence of growth and division during the life of a cell
Gametes
An organism's reproductive cells, such as sperm or egg cells
Chromatids
The two exact copies of DNA that make up each chromosome
Sex chromosomes
Chromosomes that contain genes that will determine the sex of an individual
Haploid
When a cell contains one set of chromosomes
Spindle fibers
Cell structures made of individual microtubule fibers that are involved in moving chromosomes during cell division
Synapsis
A pairing of homologous chromosomes that occurs in meiosis but not in mitosis
Diploid
When a cell contains two sets of chromosomes
Karyotype
A photo of the chromosomes in a dividing cell, arranged by size
Histone
Helps maintain the shape of the chromosome and aids in the tight packaging of DNA
Nonhistone proteins
Generally involved in controlling the activity of specific regions of the DNA
Chromatin
Between cell divisions, the DNA in a eukaryotic cell is uncoiled and spread out in this form
44
How many of the 46 human chromosomes are autosomes?
8
If diploid=16, then haploid=_.
Interphase
G1 phase, G2 phase, and S phase are stages of __________.
Interphase
Which part of IPMAT is not a part of cell division?
Binary fission
A form of asexual reproduction in bacteria/prokaryotes
S phase
In eukaryotic cells, DNA is copied in this phase of the cell cycle.
G0 phase
Phase in which cells exit from the cell cycle
G1 phase, S phase, G2 phase, mitosis, cytokinesis
5 main stages of the cell cycle
Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
4 stages of mitosis
Tetrad
A pair of homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis
Independent assortment
The random separation of homologous chromosomes during anaphase I
Polar bodies
Haploid offspring cells
Meiosis II
Separates chromatids into opposite poles of the cell
1 haploid gamete
What is produced when a diploid reproductive cell divides meiotically in oogenesis
Crossing-over and independent assortment
2 ways in which genetic recombination occurs during meiosis
2 haploid gametes
Products of meiosis I
4 haploid offspring cells
Products of meiosis II