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59 terms

Information Security

STUDY
PLAY
Physical Security
to protect physical items, objects, or areas from unauthorized access and misuse
personnel security
to protect the individual or group of individuals who are authorized to access the organization and its operations
operations security
to protect communication media, technology, and content
network security
to protect networking components, connections, and other contents
information security
to protect the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information assets, whether in storage, processing, or transmission
Access
a subject or object's ability to use, manipulate, modify, or affect another subject or object
Asset
the organizational resource that is being protected
Attack
An intentional or unintentional act that can cause damage to or otherwise compromise information and/or the systems that support it
Risk
the probability that something unwanted will happen
risk appetite
the quantity and nature of risk the organization is willing to accept
Vulnerability
a weakness or fault in a system or protection mechanism that opens it to attack or damage
utility
quality or state of having value for some purpose or end
possession
the quality or state of ownership or control
Information system
more than the hardware: it is the entire set of software, hardware, data, people, procedures, and networks that make possible the use of information resources in the organization
Systems development life cycle
a methodology for the design and implementation of an information system
trojan horse
software programs that hide their true nature and reveal their designed behavior only when activated
back door/ trap door
allows the attacker to access the system at will with special privileges
polymorphic threat
one that over time changes the way it appears to antivirus software programs, making it undetectable by techniques that look for reconfigured signatures
spike
momentary increase
surge
a prolonged increase
Hackers
people who use and create computer software [to] gain access to information illegally
malicious code
attack includes the execution of viruses, worms, trojan horses, and active web scripts with the intent to destroy or steal information
bot
an automated software program that executes certain commands when it receives specific input
spyware
any technology that aids in gathering information about a person or organization without their knowledge
adware
any software program intended for marketing purposes such as that used to deliver and display advertising banners or pop ups to the user's screen or tracking the user's online usage or purchasing activity
brute force attack/ password attack
the application of computing and network resources to try every possible password combination
distributed denial-of-service (DDoS)
an attack in which a coordinated stream of requests is launched against a target from many locations at the same time
Zombies
machines that are directed remotely (usually by a transmitted command) by the attacker to participate in the attack
spoofing
technique used to authorize access to computers, wherein the intruder sends messages with a source IP address that has been forged to indicate that the message are coming from a trusted host
man in the middle (TCP hijacking attack)
an attacker monitors (or sniffs) packets from the network, modifies them, and inserts them back into the network
pharming
the redirection of legitimate web traffic to an illegitimate site for the purpose of obtaining private information
buffer overrun
an application error that occurs when more data is sent to a program buffer than it is designed to handle
firewall
an information security program that prevents specific types of information from moving between the outside world ( untrusted network) and the inside network( trusted network)
address restrictions
rules designed to prohibit packets with certain addresses or partial addresses from passing through the device
reverse firewalls
primary purpose is to restrict internal access to external material
kerberos
uses symmetric key encryption to validate an individual user to various network resources
virtual Private networks
a private and secure connection between systems that uses the data communication capability of an unsecured and public network
intrusion
occurs when an attacker attempts to gain entry into or disrupt the normal operations of an information system
intrusion prevention
activities that deter an intrusion
intrusion detection
procedures and systems that identify system intrusions
Intrusion reaction
encompasses the actions an organization takes when an intrusion is detected
intrusion correction
finalize the restoration of operations to a normal state and seek to identify the source and method of the intrusion in order to ensure that the same type of attack cannot occur again
central IDPS control strategy
all IDPS control functions are implemented and managed in a central location
fully distributed IDPS control strategy
all control functions are applied at the physical location of each IDPS component
partially distributed IDPS control strategy
still analyze and respond to local threats, their reporting to a hierarchical central facility enables the organization to detect widespread attacks
honey pots
decoy systems designed to lure potential attackers away from critical systems
honeynet
collection of honey pots
Trap-and-trace
use a combination of techniques to detect an intrusion and then trace it back to its source
enticement
is an act of attracting attention to a system by placing tantalizing information in key locations-legal
entrapment
the act of luring an individual into committing a crime to get a conviction-illegal
footprinting
organized research of the internet address owned or controlled by a target organization
fingerprinting
systematic survey of all of the target organization's internet address
active vulnerability scanners
scan networks for highly detailed information. An active scanner is one that initiates traffic on the network in order to determine security holes
passive vulnerability scanner
one that listens in on the network and determines vulnerable versions of both server and client software
packet sniffer
a network that collects copies of packets from the network and analyzes them
biometric access control
based on the use of some measurable human characteristic or trait to authenticate the identity of a proposed system user
false reject rate
the percentage of supplicants who are in fact authorized users but are denied access
false accept rate
the percentage of supplicants who are unauthorized users but are granted access
crossover error rate
the level at which the number of false rejections equals the false acceptance