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77 terms

Fox Physiology Ch. 2

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60 percent
percentage of water in the human body
atoms
smallest units of chemical elements
protons
subatomic particles with a positive charge; found in the nucleus
neutrons
subatomic particles with no charge; found in the nucleus
electrons
subatomic particles with a negative charge; located in orbitals around the nucleus
atomic number
the number of protons
mass number
the number of protons and neutrons in an atom
valence electrons
the outermost electrons of an atom; readily available to react
isotopes
different forms of an element with different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus
deuterium
an isotope of hydrogen that has one proton and one neutron
tritium
an isotope of hydrogen that has one proton and two neutrons; also radioactive
covalent
type of chemical bond that occurs when electrons are shared; polar and nonpolar
ionic
type of chemical bond that occurs when electrons are completely transferred between atoms; between a metal and nonmetal
hydrogen
type of chemical bond that occurs when H bonds with N,O,F; cause of many physical properties
hydrophilic
water loving; polar molecules; can form hydration spheres when dissolved in water
hydrophobic
water hating; nonpolar molecules
neutral
solution with a [H+] of 10^-7 molar
acid
a molecule that can release protons (H+) into a solution; a "proton donor"
base
a molecule that removes protons (H+) from a solution; a "proton acceptor"
pH
measure of log (1/[H+]); tells how basic or acidic a solution is
buffer
a system of molecules and ions that acts to prevent changes in [H+] and stabilize pH
7.40
average blood pH +/- 0.05
blood plasma buffer
HCO3- + H+ <=> H2CO3
acidosis
condition where blood pH drops below 7.35
alkalosis
condition where blood pH rises above 7.45
organic molecules
chemical compounds made up primarily of carbon and hydrogen
linear
hydrocarbon where molecules are arranged in a straight, or mostly straight, line
cyclic
type of hydrocarbon pictured here
aromatic
type of hydrocarbon pictured here, on this lovely cake
ketones
carbonyl group within the carbon chain (C=O)
alcohols
hydroxyl group within the carbon chain (-OH)
organic acids
carboxylic group within carbon chain (-COOH)
aldehyde
carbonyl group at the end of the carbon chain (O=C-H)
stereoisomers
molecules with same atoms but with different spatial orientations of functional groups
thalidomide
sedative containing mix of D and L-stereoisomers; causes severe birth defects; now used to treat AIDS, leprosy, cachexia
L-amino acids
the stereoisomeric form of amino acids that the body can metabolize
D-sugars
the stereoisomeric form of sugars that the body can metabolize
carbohydrates
organic molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in the ratio: CnH2nOn
monosaccharide
a simple sugar; such as glucose, galactose, or fructose
disaccharide
a double sugar consisting of two monosaccharides linked together via condensation reaction (e.g. sucrose = glucose+fructose)
polysaccharide
many monosaccharides linked together via condensation reactions; starch and glycogen are examples
glycogen
type of polysaccharide that is digestible by humans; can hydrolyze the α-1,4 glycosidic bonds
lipids
molecules insoluble in polar solvents; structures are highly varied
saturated
a type of lipid that does not contain double bonded carbons
unsaturated
a type of lipid that contains at least one double bond carbon
triglyceride
aka triacylglycerol; a molecule formed by the condensation of 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids
ketone bodies
substances, derived from fatty acids, in the liver (ex. β-hydroxybutryic acid and acetoacetic acid)
ketosis
elevated levels of ketone bodies in the blood; may be a result of rapid fat breakdown or diabetes mellitus
ketoacidosis
lowering of the blood pH due to elevated levels of ketone bodies in the blood; severe cases may lead to coma and death
phospholipids
amphipathic molecules made up of a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail; compose cell membranes
micelles
aggregations of water and lipid molecules
lecithin
a specific type of phospholipid composing cell membranes
surfactant
molecules that alter the surface tension of liquids; keep the lungs inflated
steroids
lipid molecules made up of three 6-C rings and one 5-C ring
cholesterol
steroid involved in cell membranes; precursor for sex hormones and corticosteroids
sex steroids
lipids including estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone
corticosteroids
lipids including hydrocortisone, aldosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone
prostaglandins
fatty acids with a cyclic hydrocarbon; regulate blood vessel diameter, ovulation, uterine contraction, inflammation, and blood clotting
proteins
molecules composed of long chains of amino acids bonded together via peptide bonds
primary structure
first level of structure of a protein that describes the sequence of amino acids
secondary structure
next level of structure of a protein formed by weak interactions between peptides (hydrogen bonds, van der waals, disulfide, ionic); forms either α-helix or β-pleated sheet
tertiary structure
next level of structure of a protein formed by bending and folding into a complex three dimensional shape
quaternary structure
final level of structure (not all proteins) formed by joining of several polypeptide chains (e.g. hemoglobin and insulin)
glycoproteins
protein conjugated with carbohydrates
lipoproteins
proteins conjugated with lipids
nucleotides
subunits of nucleic acids; bonded via dehydration synthesis
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid; serves as basis for genetic code; involves guanine, thymine, cytosine, and adenine
complementary base pairing
T = A and G = C
double helix
three dimensional shape of a DNA molecule
RNA
ribonucleic acid; another nucleic acid used in the cell for protein synthesis and interpretation of the genetic code
uracil
base found only in RNA
capillary action
the physical property that allows for measurement of hematocrit
leukemia
the type of cancer that can be caused by exposure to benzene
rum
alcoholic beverage that is high in aldehydes
nucleoside
a precursor that reacts with phosphate to produce nucleotides
genomics
the order of base pairs in a genome
proteomics
the branch of genetics that studies the full set of proteins encoded by a genome

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