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Substance that release H+ in solution (body fluids).


Hydroxyl ion (OH-) or bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) substance that binds to H+.

Strong Acid

Completely dissociates in solution, releasing all of its hydrogen ions and thus lowering solution pH level.

Weak Acid

Does not release all of it's hydrogen ions in a solution.

Strong Base

Strong tendency to bind H+ and having a lesser effect on solution pH.

Weak Base

Bind less of H+, having lesser effect on solution pH.

PCO2 Levels

40-45 mm Hg

Bicarbonate Levels

22-30 mmol/L

pH Levels


In Order to Maintain Homeostasis..

Utilize both chemical and physiological buffering systems.

Formula for Acid Base Balance



pH falls below 7.35.


pH rise over 7.45.

Respiratory Acidosis

Hypoventilation, decrease in blood that include: airway obstruction, depression of the respiratory center in the brain stem, lung disease, and drug overdose. Secretion of H+ into urine causes an increase in plasma pH.

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