15 terms

AP Biology Test Prep Chapter 7: Respiration-Terms

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Aerobic Respiration
Energy-producing relations in animals that reqiures oxygen and involves three steps: Glycolysis, the Krebs Cycle, and Oxidative Phosphorylation.
Anaerobic Respiration
Energy-producing reactions, known as fermentation, that does not involve oxygen. It begins with Glycolysis and ends with the formation of NAD+.
Glycolysis
Occurs in the cytoplasm of cells and is the beginning pathway of both aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Yields two ATP, two NADH, and two molecules of pyruvate.
PGAL
Molecule important to energy producing reactions photosynthesis and respiration.
Krebs Cycle
Energy-producing reaction that occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria, in which pyruvate is broken down completely into H2O and CO2. Each pyruvate yields 4 NADH, 1 FADH2, and 1 ATP. Therefore, one molecule of Glucose=10 NADH, 2 FADH2, & 4 ATP.
Oxidative Phosphorylation
Aerobic process in which NADH and FADH2 pass their electrons down the electron transport chain to produce ATP.
NADH
Produces up to 3 ATP molecules.
FADH2
Produces up to 2 ATP molecules.
Electron Transport Chain
The chain of molecules, located in the mitochondria, that passes electrons along during the process of chemiosmosis to regenerate NAD+ to form ATP. Each time an electron passes to another member of the chain, the energy level of the system drops.
Chemiosmosis
The coupling of the movement of electrons down the electron transport chain with the formation of ATP using the driving force provided by a proton gradient. Used in both photosynthesis and respiration.
ATP Synthase
Enzyme that uses the flow of hydrogens to drive the phosphorylation of an adenosine diphosphate(ADP) molecule to produce adenosine triphosphate(ATP).
1/2 O2
Final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain.
Fermentation
Anaerobic respiration pathway that occurs in the absence of oxygen. Produces less ATP than aerobic respiration.
Alcoholic Fermentation
Occurs in fungi, yeast, and bacteria. Pyruvate is converted in two steps to ethanol, regenerating two molecules of NAD+.
Lactic Acid Fermentation
Occurs in human muscle cells when oxygen is unavailable. Pyruvate is directly reduced to lactate by NADH to regenerate the NAD+ needed for the resumption of glycolysis.