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Circulatory system transports 2 & CO2), Nutrients, Hormones and Waste Substanceswhat?
Respiratory gases (O2 & CO2), Nutrients, Hormones and Waste Substances
Lymphatic system does what?
Picks up excess fluid filtered out in capillary beds and returns it to veins
What is the major contributors to osmotic pressure of plasma; transports lipids, steroid hormones?
What are the two types of White Blood Cells?
Granular leukocytes. (Include Eosinophils, Basophils, and Neutrophils
How do Platelets(Thrombocytes) help clotting?
Release serotonin to vasoconstrict & reduce blood flow to clot area
Hematopoiesis is a formation of what?
Is a formation of blood cells from stem cells in marrow (Myeloid tissue) & Lymphoid tissue
Old Red Blood Cells removed from the blood by Phagocytic cells happen in these 3 places?
Liver, Spleen, Bone Marrow
Blood Types determine by the presence or absence of specific proteins on the surface of?
Red Blood Cells (Antigens or Aggultinogens)
Type AB is what kind of donor?
Universal Recipient, because doesn't make anti-A or anti-B antibodies
True or False? Rh Factors and Pregnancy. Can cause problems when Rh+ mother has Rh- baby?
False, can cause problems when Rh- mother has Rh+ baby
How does Erythroblastosis fetalis occur?
Antibodies cross placenta causing Hemolysis of Fetal Red Blood Cells
Serotonin and Thromboxane A2 do what to a wound?
Stimulate vasoconstriction, reducing blood flow to a wound
ADP & Thromboxane A2 cause other platelets to do what for a wound?
ADP & Thromboxane A2 cause other platelets to become sticky and attach and undergo platelet release reaction. This continues until platelet plug is formed
What is the role of Fibrin?
Platelet plug becomes infilitrated by meshwork of Fibrin which is formed of the plasma protein Fibrogen. (Thrombin converts fibrinogen to fibrin)
Clotting can be prevented by adding what drugs? (4 drugs)
Sodium Citrate, EDTA, Heparin and Coumarin
T/F The Pericardium contains a thick film or fluids for lubrication
False, The Pericardium contains a THIN film of fluids for lubrication
The Pericardium is made up of what TWO layers?
The Visceral; close to the heart. The Parietal; close to the chest wall
What is the side of the heart that contains blood POOR in Oxygen(Deoxygenated Blood)?
The Right Side of the heart
The heart contains 4 valves which allow blood to flow in one direction only, what are the 4?
Tricuspid, Mitral, Pulmonary, Aortic
Endothelium is what kind of Epithelium tissue?
Simple Squamous Epithelium(one layer of simple squamous.)
What are the 3 layers of Arteries and veins called?
Tunica Externa (Connective tissue), Tunica, Media,(is mostly smooth muscle) Tunica Interna ( Endothelium and elastin0
What kind of arteries provide most resistance in the circulatory system?
Small Arteries and Arterioles
Blood is moved toward heart by contraction of surrounding skeletal muscles by?
skeletal muscle pump(pressure drops in chest during breathing)
These capillaries have large gaps in endothelium
Discontinuous Capillaries (Present in liver, spleen and bone marrow
What are the two different circulations of blood inside the body?
The pulmonary circulation and The Systemic Circulation
In the Pulmonary Circulation "?" gets rid of Carbon Dioxide and becomes loaded with "?".
Blood and Oxygen
Blood flows in what order?
Heart, Aorta, Arteries, Arterioles, Capillaries, Venules, Veins(upper superior, lower inferior), Heart. (HAAACVVH)
In the Pulmonary &Systemic Circulations deoxygenated blood returns to the Right atrium via the 2 main Veins, what are they?
Superior and Inferior Vena Cava
The Right Ventricle contracts to pump Blood into the "?" which divides into RIght and Left Pulmonary Arteries
In the Lungs, Exchange of gases takes place between "?" in capillaries and air in the Lung Alveoli. Blood becomes Oxygenated
The Superior Vena Cave and Inferior Vena Cave bring Deoxygenated Blood Back to the Right "?" and another cardiac cycle begins
What are the 4 phases of the Cardiac Cycle?
Ventricular Filling, Isovolunetric Ventricular contraction, Ventricular Ejection, Isovolumetric Ventricular relaxation
Define End-Diastolic Volume in the cardiac cycle
Is volume of blood in ventricles at end of diastole
Define Stroke Volume in the cardiac cycle
Is amount of blood ejected from ventricles during systole (What's left?
Define End-Systolic volume in the cardiac cycle
is amount of blood left in ventricles at end of systole
Explain what happens in Ventricular Filling
Blood flows from the artria to the ventricles during ventricular Diastole
In Isovolunetric Contraction what happens?
As ventricles begin contraction, pressure inside then rises closing AV Valves.
In Isovolunetric Contraction does pressure inside the ventricles keep rising or keep going down?
Pressure keeps rising
Define Isovolumetric Relaxation
As pressure in ventricls falls below that in Aorta and the Pulmonary Artery, back pressure closes the semilunar valves
In Heart Sounds, closing of "?" & "?" valves produces sounds that can be heard using a stehoscope
Atrioventricular & Semilunar Valves
In heart sounds, Lub (1st sound) is produced by what?
Closing of AV valves (Antrioventricular Valves, Begining of Contaction)
In heart sounds, Dub (2nd Sound) is produced by what?
Closing of Semilunars (Beginning of relaxation)
"?" fever causes damage to the heart valves due to antibodies made in response to strep infection
What is Ventricular Ejection?
When pressure in the ventricles exceeds the pressure in Aorta and the Pulmonary Artery. The Semilunar Valves open and ejection begins
Heart Murmurs, define Mitral Stenosis
Mitral valve becomes narrow impairing blood flow from left atrium to left ventricle
In Electrical Activity of the Heart, Myocardial cells are? (3 facts)
Short, Branced and Interconnected by gap junctions
What are Purkinje fibers and and where are they located?
Purkinje fibers are located in the walls of ventricles and these stimulate contraction of ventricles
Do Ventricules contract before or after Atrium?
Ventricles contract after the Atrium. Ventricular contraction begins 0.1-0.2 sec after contraction of atria
T/F time delay occursas AP's pass through AV node?
True, Time delay occurs as AP's pass through AV node. Ventricular contraction begins 0.1-0.2 sec after contraction of atria
Myocardial cells have a Resting Memebrane Potential of "?" mV
-90mV (Depolarized to threshold by Action Potentials originatiing in SA node)
Refactory Period in the heart is long or short?
Long, Heart has a Refractory Period almost as long as AP (Action Potential)
What is a Electrocardiogram? (ECG/EKG)
Is a recording of electrical activity of the heart conducted thru ions to body surface
Localized Plaques(atheromas) reduce flow in an artery, what is this disease called?
Lipids, including cholesterol, are carried in blood attached to?
LDLs (low-density lipoproteins) and HDLs (high-density lipoproteins)
LDLs & HDLs are produced in "?" & taken into cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis
Produced in Liver
Do arteries have receptors for LDL or HDL?
For LDL LDL has receptors but HDL does not. That's why HDL is not Atherosclerotic)
Ischemic Heart Disease is most common due to atherosclerosis in?
Atherosclerosis in coronary arteries
This occurs when blood supply to tissue is deficient
Ischemia occurs (Causes increased lactic acid from anaerobic metabolism)
How is a Myocardial Infarction Diagnosed by?
Diagnosed by high levels of creatine phosphate (CPK) & lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)
"?" is life-threatening Arrthymias when detected on ECG
Ventricular fibrillation is life threatening (Weak Contraction)
Arrhythmias Detected on ECG, This happens when only 1 out of 2-4 atrial APs can pass to ventricles
Second-degree AV node block (Causes P-Waves with no QRS)
Arrythmias Detected on ECG, This Happens when no atrial activity passes to vetricles
third degree or complete AV node block
What are the 3 basic functions of the Lymphatic System?
Transports Interstitial fluid Lymph back to blood, Transports absorbed fat from small intestine to blood, Helps provide immunological defenses against pathogens
"?" Are closed-ended tubes that form vast networks in intercellular spaces
Lymphatic Capillaries (Very porus, absorb proteins, Microganisms, and fat
Lymph nodes filter lymph before returning it to viens via "?" "?"
Thoracic Duct and Right Lymphatic Duct
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