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222 terms

Human Physiology

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What is the "key" of the circulatory system?
Transport
Circulatory system transports 2 & CO2), Nutrients, Hormones and Waste Substanceswhat?
Respiratory gases (O2 & CO2), Nutrients, Hormones and Waste Substances
In the circulatory system what is an example of 2 organs that gets rid of waste?
Lungs and Kidneys
The Circulatory system has Regulation of what?
Body temperature, Blood Clotting, Immune Function
What are the two components of the Circulatory System?
Cardiovascular system and Lymphatic system
Cardiovascular controls what three?
heart, blood vessels, blood
Lymphatic system does what?
Picks up excess fluid filtered out in capillary beds and returns it to veins
What happens in the Lymphatic system if there is an infection or is not working?
Swelling
3 Things the Lymphatic system controls
Lymph nodes, lymph vessels, and lymph
Lymph has or controls what fluid?
Interstitial fluid
Total volume of blood is?
5L
What are the two components of blood?
Plasma and Formed Elements
Name two facts about plasma?
Straw colored fluid consisting of H20 and dissolved solutes and Serum
What is Serum?
Is the Fluid left when blood clots
Name 3 things that are "Formed" Elements
Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells, Platelets
What is 92% of Plasma composition?
Water
What is 60% of Plasma Proteins?
Albumin
What is the major contributors to osmotic pressure of plasma; transports lipids, steroid hormones?
Albumin
In Plasma Proteins what does Globulin do?
Transport ions, hormones lipids; immune function
What represents 99.9% of The Formed Elements?
Red Blood Cells, they represent formed elements
Red Blood Cells are also called?
Erythrocytes
Red Blood Cells contain?
Hemoglobin
Red Blood Cells carry?
Oxygen
Where are Red Blood Cells produced?
Bone Marrow
Red Blood Cells live for how many days?
120 days
What cells do red blood Cells lack?
Lack Nuclei & Mitochondria
White blood cells are also called?
Leukocytes
What do White Blood cells do when there is an infection?
An Increase of White Blood Cells
What 3 cell items are in a White Blood Cell?
Nucleus, mitochondria and amoeboid ability
What are the two types of White Blood Cells?
Granular leukocytes. (Include Eosinophils, Basophils, and Neutrophils
What represents 60-65% of White blood cells we have?
Neutrophils
Agranular Leukocytes (that are white blood cells) do what?
Produce antibodies
Aranular Leukocytes include what two components?
Lymphocytes and Monocytes
What represents 30-35% of white blood cells?
Lymphocytes
Platelets are also called?
Thrombocytes
Platelets (Thrombocytes) are responsible for what?
Responsible for Blood Clotting
How do Platelets(Thrombocytes) help clotting?
Release serotonin to vasoconstrict & reduce blood flow to clot area
What is the "smallest" of the Formed Elements?
Platelets (Thrombocytes)
How long do Platelets, (Thrombocytes) last? (Days)
5-9 Days
What is the count of Platelets (Thrombocytes)?
130,000.00 - 400,000.00/cmm
Hematopoiesis is a formation of what?
Is a formation of blood cells from stem cells in marrow (Myeloid tissue) & Lymphoid tissue
Erythropoiesis is a formation of?
Red Blood Cells Stimulated by Erythropoietin from kidney
Leukopoiesis is a formation of?
White Blood cells, stimulated by variety of cytokines
White Blood Cells Increase with what?
A infection, Army of the body
Erythropoiesis produces how many Red Blood Cells per second?
2.5 million per second
What is the name of the cells that removes old Red Blood Cells?
Phagocytic Cells
Old Red Blood Cells removed from the blood by Phagocytic cells happen in these 3 places?
Liver, Spleen, Bone Marrow
In Erythropoiesis what is recycled back into hemoglobin production?
Iron
When someone has a yellow look this is called?
Jaundice, Excessive blillie-rubin
Does Jaundice go away in babies?
Yes
Does Jauncice go away in adults?
No, they need a liver transplant
Blood Types determine by the presence or absence of specific proteins on the surface of?
Red Blood Cells (Antigens or Aggultinogens)
This occurs when Antigens meet Antibodies
Cross-Reaction (Agglutination)
Blood Type A contains?
Contains Antigen A and Antibodies against (B)
Blood Type B contains?
Contains Antigen B and Antibodies against (A)
Blood Type AB contains?
Antigen A and Antigen B, No Antibodies
Blood Type O contains?
No antigens, antibodies against (A) and (B)
What is Myeloid Tissue?
Red Bone Marrow of long bones. Erythropoiesis and leukpoisis occur here
Type O is what kind of donor?
Universal Donor, because lacks A & B aintigens
Type AB is what kind of donor?
Universal Recipient, because doesn't make anti-A or anti-B antibodies
If Blood types don't match, recipient's antibodies "?" donor's Red Blood Cells
Agglutinate
Lymphocytes produced in bone marrow travel "?" , role in specific immunity
Lymphoid Tissue
In The Rh factor, Rh positive red blood cells DO or DO NOT contain the Rh Antigen?
DO Contain
In The Rh factor, Rh Negative red blood cells DO or DO NOT contain the Rh antigen?
DO NOT!
True or False? Rh Factors and Pregnancy. Can cause problems when Rh+ mother has Rh- baby?
False, can cause problems when Rh- mother has Rh+ baby
How does Erythroblastosis fetalis occur?
Antibodies cross placenta causing Hemolysis of Fetal Red Blood Cells
What do you give to babies to stop them from having Rh+ babies?
The drug Rogan
Define Hemostasis
Is cessation or Stopping of bleeding
Vasoconstriction does what when a vessel is injured?
Restricts blood flow to area
In Hemostasis what forms?
Platelet plug forms; to help stop bleeding
What is the most important role of Platelets?
Blood Clotting
What are the 2 things that Platelets do?
Formation of Platelet Plug and Platelet Aggregation
True or False? Damage to the Endothelium allows platelets to bind to exposed collagen?
True
Platelets stick to collagen & release what?
Adp, Serotonin and Thromboxane A2
Platelet Relase "?"
Platelet Release Reaction
Serotonin and Thromboxane A2 do what to a wound?
Stimulate vasoconstriction, reducing blood flow to a wound
ADP & Thromboxane A2 cause other platelets to do what for a wound?
ADP & Thromboxane A2 cause other platelets to become sticky and attach and undergo platelet release reaction. This continues until platelet plug is formed
What is the role of Fibrin?
Platelet plug becomes infilitrated by meshwork of Fibrin which is formed of the plasma protein Fibrogen. (Thrombin converts fibrinogen to fibrin)
Once a clot is formed, what does the clot contain? (3 things)
Platelets, Fibrin, Red Blood Cells
Platlet plug undergoes "?" to form more compact plug
Plug Contraction
Define Anticoagulants?
Drugs that can prevent the formation of Blood Clot
Clotting can be prevented by adding what drugs? (4 drugs)
Sodium Citrate, EDTA, Heparin and Coumarin
Coumarin blocks clotting by inhibiting activation of "?"
Vit K
Vit K is required for?
Blood Clotting
The Cardiovascular System is made up of 2 things
The Heart and The Blood Vessels
The heart is the size of a?
Fist
What does the heart work as?
A pump
The heart is made up of what muscle?
Myocardium
The outside of the heart is covered by the?
Epicardium
The inside of the heart is lined by the?
Endocardium
The Heart is surrounded by the?
Pericardium
The Pericardium is......?
a sac that surrounds the Heart
T/F The Pericardium contains a thick film or fluids for lubrication
False, The Pericardium contains a THIN film of fluids for lubrication
The Pericardium is made up of what TWO layers?
The Visceral; close to the heart. The Parietal; close to the chest wall
Define Pericardial Effusion
Collection of fluids in the Pericardial sac
The Visceral layer of the Pericardium is close to the?
Heart
The Parietal layer of the Pericardium is close to the?
Chest Wall
The heart is divided by a "?" into two sides or halves (Right and Left).
Septum
What is the side of the heart that contains blood POOR in Oxygen(Deoxygenated Blood)?
The Right Side of the heart
This side of the heart contains blood RICH in Oxygen(Oxygenated Blood)?
The Left Side of the heart
Each side of the heart is divided into two chambers, what are they?
Atrium and Ventricle
Upper chamber of the heart is called?
Atrium
Lower chamber of the heart is called?
Ventricle
The myocardium of the Atria is seperated from the ventricular myocardium by?
Fibrous Skeleton
T/F The Atria contracts before the Ventricles?
True, The Atria contracts before the Ventricles
The heart contains 4 valves which allow blood to flow in one direction only, what are the 4?
Tricuspid, Mitral, Pulmonary, Aortic
Tricuspid is located?
Between the Right Atrium and the Right Ventricle
Mitral is located?
Between the Left Atrium and the Left Ventricle
Pulmonary is located?
Between the Right Ventricle and the Pulmonary Artery
Aortic is located?
Between the Left ventricle and the Aorta
What are the 3 types of Blood Vessels?
Arteries, Veins, Capillaries
Innermost layer of all bood vessels is the "?"
Endothelium
Endothelium is what kind of Epithelium tissue?
Simple Squamous Epithelium(one layer of simple squamous.)
What are the 3 layers of Arteries and veins called?
Tunica Externa (Connective tissue), Tunica, Media,(is mostly smooth muscle) Tunica Interna ( Endothelium and elastin0
Arteries have thick walls or thin walls?
Thick Walls
Arteries carry blood to or away from the heart?
Away from the heart
What is the only Artery that does not carry blood rich in oxygen?
Pulmonary Artery
Pressure inside of arteries is high or low?
relatively high
Small Arteries are called?
Arterioles
Arterioles maintain what?
Blood Pressure
Large Arteries are Elastic or Non Elastic?
Elastic
Large Arteries contain lots of?
Elastin
What does Elastin help maintain?
Helps maintain smooth blood flow during diastole
What kind of arteries provide most resistance in the circulatory system?
Small Arteries and Arterioles
Veins have thick or thin walls?
Thin walls
Veins carry blood towards the heart or away from the heart?
towards the heart
Veins carry blood poor or rich in oxygen?
Poor in oxygen
Veins carry blood poor in Oxygen, except?
The Pulmonary Veins
Pressure inside the veins is high or low?
Low
Small veins are called?
venules
Blood is moved toward heart by contraction of surrounding skeletal muscles by?
skeletal muscle pump(pressure drops in chest during breathing)
Venous valves ensure that what happens?
Ensures that blood moves only toward the heart
What do Capillaries connect between?
Arteries and Veins
Blood gives its "?" to body cells and takes away "?" and takes away "?"
Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide
In "?", endothelial cells are tightly joined together?
Continious Capillaries
Continuous Capillaries are present where?
Muscle, Lungs and adipose tissue
This capillary has a wide intercellular pore
Fenestrated Cappilaries
Fenestrated Capillaries is present where?
Kidneys, endocrine glands, intestines
These capillaries have large gaps in endothelium
Discontinuous Capillaries (Present in liver, spleen and bone marrow
What are the two different circulations of blood inside the body?
The pulmonary circulation and The Systemic Circulation
In the Pulmonary Circulation blood circulates between the "?" and the "?".
Heart and Lungs
In the Pulmonary Circulation "?" gets rid of Carbon Dioxide and becomes loaded with "?".
Blood and Oxygen
The "?" is the only artery that carries Deoxygenated blood
The Pulmonary Artery
The "?" are the only veins that carry Oxygenated Blood.
The Pulmonary Veins
In Systemic Circulation "?" circulates between the Heart and Different organs of the body.
Blood
Blood flows in what order?
Heart, Aorta, Arteries, Arterioles, Capillaries, Venules, Veins(upper superior, lower inferior), Heart. (HAAACVVH)
In the Pulmonary &Systemic Circulations deoxygenated blood returns to the Right atrium via the 2 main Veins, what are they?
Superior and Inferior Vena Cava
The Right Ventricle contracts to pump Blood into the "?" which divides into RIght and Left Pulmonary Arteries
Pulmonary Trunk
In the Lungs, Exchange of gases takes place between "?" in capillaries and air in the Lung Alveoli. Blood becomes Oxygenated
Blood
"?" returns to the Left Atrium via the four Pulmonary veins
Oxygenated Blood
Blood Flows from the Left Atrium to the Left Ventricle through the "?"
Bicuspid Valve
The Superior Vena Cave and Inferior Vena Cave bring Deoxygenated Blood Back to the Right "?" and another cardiac cycle begins
Right Atrium
Define the Cardiac Cycle
Is repeating pattern of contraction and relaxation of heart
In the Cardiac Cycle, Systole refers to?
Systole refers to contraction phase
In the Cardiac Cycle, Diastole refers to?
Diastole refers to relaxation phase
What are the 4 phases of the Cardiac Cycle?
Ventricular Filling, Isovolunetric Ventricular contraction, Ventricular Ejection, Isovolumetric Ventricular relaxation
Define End-Diastolic Volume in the cardiac cycle
Is volume of blood in ventricles at end of diastole
Define Stroke Volume in the cardiac cycle
Is amount of blood ejected from ventricles during systole (What's left?
Define Cardiac Output in the cardiac cycle
is amount of blood pumped per minute
Define End-Systolic volume in the cardiac cycle
is amount of blood left in ventricles at end of systole
Explain what happens in Ventricular Filling
Blood flows from the artria to the ventricles during ventricular Diastole
In Isovolunetric Contraction what happens?
As ventricles begin contraction, pressure inside then rises closing AV Valves.
In Isovolunetric Contraction does pressure inside the ventricles keep rising or keep going down?
Pressure keeps rising
Define Isovolumetric Relaxation
As pressure in ventricls falls below that in Aorta and the Pulmonary Artery, back pressure closes the semilunar valves
"?" sends it's blood into ventricles
Atrial Systole
In Heart Sounds, closing of "?" & "?" valves produces sounds that can be heard using a stehoscope
Atrioventricular & Semilunar Valves
In heart sounds, Lub (1st sound) is produced by what?
Closing of AV valves (Antrioventricular Valves, Begining of Contaction)
In heart sounds, Dub (2nd Sound) is produced by what?
Closing of Semilunars (Beginning of relaxation)
Heart Murmurs are "?" produced by abnormal patterns of blood flow in heart
abnormal sounds
Heart Murmurs are caused by?
Defective heart valves, Congenital defects
"?" fever causes damage to the heart valves due to antibodies made in response to strep infection
Rheumatic Fever
What is Ventricular Ejection?
When pressure in the ventricles exceeds the pressure in Aorta and the Pulmonary Artery. The Semilunar Valves open and ejection begins
Heart Murmurs, define Mitral Stenosis
Mitral valve becomes narrow impairing blood flow from left atrium to left ventricle
In Heart Murmurs, Valves are "?" when don't close properly
Incompetent
In Electrical Activity of the Heart, Myocardial cells are? (3 facts)
Short, Branced and Interconnected by gap junctions
Entire muscle that forms a chamber is called a "?" and contracts as one unit
Myocardium
In Electrical Activity of the Heart, chambers are separated by "?"
Nonconductive tissue
In a normal heart, "?" functions as a pacemaker
SA Node
Action Potentials from SA node spread through Atrial myocardium via "?"
gap junctions
What are Purkinje fibers and and where are they located?
Purkinje fibers are located in the walls of ventricles and these stimulate contraction of ventricles
Do Ventricules contract before or after Atrium?
Ventricles contract after the Atrium. Ventricular contraction begins 0.1-0.2 sec after contraction of atria
T/F time delay occursas AP's pass through AV node?
True, Time delay occurs as AP's pass through AV node. Ventricular contraction begins 0.1-0.2 sec after contraction of atria
Myocardial cells have a Resting Memebrane Potential of "?" mV
-90mV (Depolarized to threshold by Action Potentials originatiing in SA node)
Refactory Period in the heart is long or short?
Long, Heart has a Refractory Period almost as long as AP (Action Potential)
What is a Electrocardiogram? (ECG/EKG)
Is a recording of electrical activity of the heart conducted thru ions to body surface
A P-Wave is caused by what type of Depolarization?
Atrial Depolarization
QRS complex is caused by what kind of Depolarization?
Ventricular Depolarization
A T-Wave results from what kind of Repolarization?
Ventricular Replarization
P-R Interval is from "?" of P-wave to start of QRS Complex
Start of P-wave to start of QRS Complex
P-R segment From "?" of P-Wave to start of QRS Complex
End of P-wave to start of QRS Complex
S-T segment From "?" of S-Wave to start of T-wave
End of S-wave to start of T-wave
Q-T Interval from "?" of QRS complex to end of T-wave
Start of QRS complex to end of T-wave
What is Ateriosclerosis?
Hardening of the arteries. (Accounts for 50% of deaths in the US)
If you have Arterissclerosis you have high "?" in your blood
You have High Lipids in the Blood
Localized Plaques(atheromas) reduce flow in an artery, what is this disease called?
Atherosclerosis/ Arteriosclerosis
Plaques begin at sites of damage to Endothelium, this is called?
Atherosclerosis
Lipids, including cholesterol, are carried in blood attached to?
LDLs (low-density lipoproteins) and HDLs (high-density lipoproteins)
High Blood Cholesterol is associated with risk of?
Atherosclerosis (Hardening of arteries)
LDLs & HDLs are produced in "?" & taken into cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis
Produced in Liver
Can Oxidized LDL injure endothelial cells facillitating plaque formation?
Yes
Do arteries have receptors for LDL or HDL?
For LDL LDL has receptors but HDL does not. That's why HDL is not Atherosclerotic)
Ischemic Heart Disease is most common due to atherosclerosis in?
Atherosclerosis in coronary arteries
This occurs when blood supply to tissue is deficient
Ischemia occurs (Causes increased lactic acid from anaerobic metabolism)
Ischemic heart disease is often accompanied by?
Angina Pectoris (Chest pain)
Ischemic Heart Disease is detectable by changes in?
S-T segment of ECG
Myocardial Infarction (MI) is a?
Heart Attack
How is a Myocardial Infarction Diagnosed by?
Diagnosed by high levels of creatine phosphate (CPK) & lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)
Arrhythmias is detected on a ECG is what?
Abnormal Heart rhythms
Bradycardia is detected on ECG is what?
Slow Heart Rate (<60/min)
Tachycardia is detected on ECG is what?
Fast Heart Rate (>100/min)
"?" is life-threatening Arrthymias when detected on ECG
Ventricular fibrillation is life threatening (Weak Contraction)
In Arrhythmias, AV node block occurs when node is?
When Node is damaged
Arrhythmias Detected on ECG, This happens when only 1 out of 2-4 atrial APs can pass to ventricles
Second-degree AV node block (Causes P-Waves with no QRS)
Arrythmias Detected on ECG, This Happens when no atrial activity passes to vetricles
third degree or complete AV node block
What are the 3 basic functions of the Lymphatic System?
Transports Interstitial fluid Lymph back to blood, Transports absorbed fat from small intestine to blood, Helps provide immunological defenses against pathogens
"?" Are closed-ended tubes that form vast networks in intercellular spaces
Lymphatic Capillaries (Very porus, absorb proteins, Microganisms, and fat
Lymp is carried from capillaries to "?" to "?"
lymph ducts to lymph nodes
"?" filter lymph before returning it to veins
Lymph nodes
Lymph nodes filter lymph before returning it to viens via "?" "?"
Thoracic Duct and Right Lymphatic Duct
Lymph Nodes make "?" & contain "?" that remove pathogens
Lymphocytes & contain phagocytic cells
Lymphocytes are also made in?
Tonsils, spleen, thymus
Define Edema?
Collection of excessive amounts of fluids in the Interstitial spaces