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a chemical that increases the rate of a chemical reaction, is not itself changed during the reaction, and it does not change the nature of the reaction
lock and key model
model of enzymatic activity where substrate A & B fit perfectly into the enzyme, are affected, and leave the active sites (leaving the enzyme unchanged)
induced fit model
model of enzymatic activity where substrate A & B fit into the active sites, induce a conformational change in the enzyme, and leave the active sites changed
diseases resulting in high blood plasma concentration of this enzyme: obstructive jaundice (gallbladder stones), Paget's disease, and carcinoma of bone
diseases resulting in high blood plasma concentration of this enzyme: benign hypertrophy of prostate, cancer of prostate
diseases resulting in high blood plasma concentration of this enzyme: pancreatitis, perforated peptic ulcer
diseases resulting in high blood plasma concentration of this enzyme: muscular dystrophy, myocardial infarction
diseases resulting in high blood plasma concentration of this enzyme: myocardial infarction, liver disease, renal disease, pernicious anemia
diseases resulting in high blood plasma concentration of this enzyme: myocardial infarction, hepatitis, muscular dystrophy
factors affecting enzyme rate
temperature and pH of a solution, concentration of cofactors and coenzymes, concentration of enzyme and substrate, stimulatory and inhibitory effects of products
metal ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, etc) that induce a conformational change in an enzyme that allows substrates to bind
phosphorylation is an example of this; required for many enzymes to properly function; prompted by the environment and turnover of enzyme proteins
when the relationship between substrate concentration and reaction rate reaches a plateau of maximum velocity
end product inhibition
a form of negative feedback where products inhibit the production of more product
specific mechanism of end product inhibition where a product inhibits a specific enzymatic step by binding to the enzyme and conformationally changing it
the idea that genetic mutations prevent translation of an enzyme and diseases may arise (ex. hypercholesterolemia)
inborn error with an increase in phenylpyruvic acid resulting in mental retardation, epilepsy (aka PKU)
maple syrup disease
inborn error with an increase in leucine, isoleucine, and valine resulting in the degeneration of the brain, early death
inborn error with accumulation of homocystine resulting in mental retardation, eye problems
glucose 6 phosphate deficiency
inborn error with accumulation of glycogen in the liver resulting in liver enlargement, hypoglycemia (aka Gierke's disease)
inborn error with accumulation of glycogen in muscles resulting in muscle fatigue and pain
inborn error with lipid accumulation resulting in liver/spleen enlargement, brain degeneration
inborn error with lipid accumulation resulting in brain degeneration, death by age five
inborn error with high blood cholesterol resulting in atherosclerosis of coronary and large arteries
first law of thermodynamics
energy cannot be created or destroyed, but can be transferred from one form to another
second law of thermodynamics
the amount of entropy/disorder increases during every energy transformation
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