The process by which plants generate energy from light and inorganic raw materials. This occurs in the chloroplasts and involves two stages: the light-dependent reactions and the light-independent reactions
The inner fluid portion of the chloroplast that plays the host to the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis.
Thylakoid Membrane System
Inner membrane that winds through the stroma of a chloroplast. Site of the light-dependent reactions.
An organism that is self-nourishing. It obtains carbon and energy without ingesting other organisms.
Bundle Sheath Cells
Cells that are tightly-wrapped around the veins of a leaf. They are the site of the Calvin Cycle in C4 plants.
A major stage of photosynthesis involving atmospheric CO2 fixation and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrates.
Plant that has adapted its photosynthetic process to more efficiently handle hot and dry conditions. Has more efficient carbon fixation.
Process by which ATP is made during the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis. It is the chloroplast equivalent of oxidative phosphorylation.
An accessory pigment, either yellow or orange, in the chloroplasts of plants. By absorbing wavelengths of light that chlorophyll cannot, these pigment broaden the spectrum of colors that can drive photosynthesis.
A type of blue-green photosynthetic pigment that is the major pigment of photosynthesis.
A type of yellow-green accessory photosynthetic pigment that is an accessory pigment that transfers energy to chlorophyll a.
One of two light-harvesting units of a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane; it uses the P700 reaction-center chlorophyll.
One of two light-harvesting units of a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane; it uses the P680 reaction-center chlorophyll.
Molecule that donates electrons to NADP+ to produce NADPH during the light reactions of photosyhthesis.
Pathway that produces ATP, NADPH, and O2. Uses both Photosystem I and II.
The attachment of the carbon of CO2 to a molecule that is able to enter the Calvin Cycle, assisted by Rubisco
Compound that plays an important role in C4 synthesis of plants and the Krebs Cycle in animals.
An enzyme that adds CO2, instead of O2, to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to form oxaloacetate in C4 plants. It acts prior to photosynthesis.
Plants close their stomata during the day, collect CO2 at night, and store the CO2 in the form of acids until it is needed during the day for photosynthesis.