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Endocrine System - Hormones

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Hypothalamic Releasing Hormones
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)
Promotes secretion of:
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
prolactin (PRL)
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
Promotes secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
Promotes secretion of:
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
luteinizing hormone (LH)
Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)
Promotes secretion of growth hormone (GH)
Target of hypothalamic releasing/inhibiting hormones
Anterior pituitary
Hypothalamic-inhibiting hormones
Prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH)
Somatostatin
Prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH)
Inhibits secretion of prolactin (PRL)
Somatostatin
Inhibits secretion of:
growth hormone (GH)
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Hormones from anterior pituitary
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Prolactin (PRL)
Growth hormone (GH)
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Female: growth of ovarian follicles
secretion of estrogen
Male: sperm production

Source -- anterior pituitary
Target -- ovaries, testes
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Female: ovulation
maintenance of corpus luteum
Male: testosterone secretion

Source -- anterior pituitary
Target -- ovaries, testes
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
-growth of thyroid
-secretion of thyroid hormone

Source -- anterior pituitary
Target -- thyroid gland
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
-growth of adrenal cortex
-secretion of glucocorticoids

Source -- anterior pituitary
Target -- adrenal cortex
Prolactin (PRL)
Female: milk synthesis
Male: increased LH sensitivity

Source -- anterior pituitary
Target -- mammary glands, testes
Growth hormone (GH)
widespread tissue growth

Source -- anterior pituitary
Target -- liver, bone, cartilage, muscle, fat
Hormones from posterior pituitary
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Oxytocin (OT)
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
water retention

Source -- posterior pituitary
Target - kidneys
Oxytocin (OT)
labor contractions
milk release
-possibly involved in ejaculation, sperm transport, sexual affection, mother-infant bonding

Source -- posterior pituitary
Target -- uterus, mammary glands
Hormones from pineal gland
Melatonin
Melatonin
Uncertain; may influence mood and sexual maturation

Source -- pineal gland
Target -- brain
Hormones from thymus
Thymopoietin
Thymosin
Thymulin
Thymopoietin, thymosin, thymulin
stimulate T lymphocyte development and activity

Source -- thymus
Target -- immune cells (T lymphocytes)
Hormones from thyroid gland
Thyroxine (T4)
Triiodothyronine (T3)
Calcitonin
Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)
-elevate metabolic rate and heat production
-increase respiratory rate, heart rate, and strength of heartbeat
-stimulate appetite and accelerate breakdown of nutrients
-promote alertness and quicken relflexes
-stimulate growth hormone secretion and growth of skin, hair, nails, teeth, and fetal nervous system

Source -- thyroid gland
Target -- most tissues
Calcitonin
stimulates bone deposition

Source -- thyroid gland
Target -- bone
Hormones from parathyroid glands
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
-increases calcium level by stimulating bone resorption and inhibiting deposition
-decreases urinary calcium excretion
-enhances calcitriol synthesis

Source -- parathyroid glands
Target -- bone, kidneys, small intestine
Hormones from adrenal medulla
Epinephrine
Norephinephrine
Dopamine
Ephinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine
-promote alertness
-mobilize organic fuels
-raise metabolic rate
-stimulate circulation and respiration
-increase blood glucose level
-inhibit insulin secretion and glucose uptake by insulin-dependent organs

Source -- adrenal medulla
Target -- most tissues
Hormones from adrenal cortex
Aldosterone
Cortisol
Corticosterone
Dehydroepiandosterone
Aldosterone
-promotes Na+ and water retention and K+ excretion
-maintains blood pressure and volume

Source -- adrenal cortex
Target -- kidney
Cortisol and Corticosterone
stimulate:
-fat and protein catabolism
-gluconeogenesis
-stress resistance
-tissue repair

Source -- adrenal cortex
Target -- most tissues
Dehydroepiandosterone
-precursor of testosterone
-indirectly promotes growth of bones, pubic and axillary hair, apocrine glands, and fetal male reproductive tract
-stimulates libido

Source -- adrenal cortex
Target -- bone, muscle, integument, brain, other tissues
Hormones from pancreatic islets
Glucagon
Insulin
Somatostatin
Pancreatic polypeptide
Gastrin
Glucagon
-stimulates amino acid absorption, gluconeogensis, glycogen and fat breakdown
-raises blood glucose and fatty acid levels

Source -- pancreatic islets
Target -- primarily liver
Insulin
-stimulates glucose and amino acid uptake
-lowers blood glucose level
-promotes glycogen, fat, and protein synthesis

Source -- pancreatic islets
Target -- most tissues
Somatostatin
modulates digestion, nutrient absorption, and glucagon and insulin secretion

Source -- pancreatic islets
Target -- stomach, intestines, pancreatic islet cells
Pancreatic polypeptide
inhibits release of bile and digestive enzymes

Source -- pancreatic islets
Target -- pancreas, gallbladder
Gastrin
stimulates acid secretion and gastric motility
Hormones from ovaries
Estradiol
Progesterone
Inhibin
Estradiol
-stimulates female reproductive development and adolescent growth
-regulates menstrual cycle and pregnancy
-prepares mammary glands for lactation

Source -- ovaries
Target -- many tissues
Progesterone
-regulates menstrual cycle and pregnancy
-prepares mammary glands for lactation

Source -- ovaries
Target -- uterus, mammary glands
Inhibin
Female: inhibits FSH secretion

Source -- ovaries
Target -- anterior pituitary
Hormones from testes
Testosterone
Inhibin
Testosterone
-stimulates fetal and adolescent reproductive development, musculoskeletal growth, sperm production, libido

Source -- testes
Target -- many tissues
Inhibin
Male: inhibits FSH secretion

Source -- testes
Target -- anterior pituitary
Hormones from skin
Cholecalciferol
Cholecalciferol
precursor of calcitriol

Source -- skin
Hormones from liver
Calcidiol
Angiotensinogen
Erythropoietin
Hepcidin
Insulin-like growth factor I
Calcidiol
precursor to calcitriol

Source -- liver
Angiotensinogen
precursor of angiotensin II

Source -- liver
Erythropoietin
-promotes red blood cell production
-increases oxygen-carrying capacity of blood

Source -- liver
Target -- red bone marrow
Hepcidin
promotes iron absorption and mobilization

Source -- liver
Target -- small intestine, liver
Insulin-like growth factor I
prolongs and mediates action of growth hormone

Source -- liver
Target -- many tissues
Hormones from kidneys
Angiotensin I
Calcitriol
Erythropoietin
Angiotensin I
precursor of Angiotensin II, a vasocontrictor

Source -- kidneys
Calcitriol
increases blood calcium level mainly by promoting intestinal absorption of calcium

Source -- kidneys
Target -- small intestine
Erythropoietin
-promotes red blood cell production
-increase oxygen-carrying capacity of blood

Source -- kidneys
Target -- red bone marrow
Hormones from heart
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)
lowers blood volume and pressure by promoting Na+ and water loss

Source -- heart
Target -- kidney
Hormones from stomach and small intestine
Cholecystokinin
Gastrin
Ghrelin
Peptide YY
Cholecystokinin
-bile release
-appetite supression

Source -- stomach/sm intestine
Target -- gallbladder, brain
Gastrin
stimulates acid secretion

Source -- stomach/sm intestine
Target -- stomach
Ghrelin
-stimulates hunger
-initiates feeding

Source -- stomach/sm intestine
Target -- brain
Peptide YY
-produces sense of satiety
-terminates feeding

Source -- stomach/sm intestine
Target -- brain