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microbiology test 2
navitsky - tunxis
Terms in this set (135)
DNA polymerase (direction )
can only polymerize reactions in the ____3' to 5' direction of the template DNA strand. It can only add in the ____ direction. It also repairs damaged DNA....
examples of plasmid Vectors
Viral Nucleic Acid
enters the cell and remains dormant by integrating into a host chromosome and when actiated, it will trigger viral duplication using the host's molecules and organelles; eventually destroys the cell and the newly replicated viruses continue the infection
Markers on Vectors
a polymerase that catalyzes the formation of DNA using RNA as a template
single-stranded DNA that is complementary to messenger RNA or DNA that has been synthesized from messenger RNA by reverse transcriptase
gene expression normally off but can be turned on by an inducer (associated with catabolic enzymes)
catabolic Biochemical pathways
−∆G; can do work for the cell/organism; breaking down
aerobic Electron acceptors
Electron Donors -Sugars, fatty acids, amino acids
substrate level Phosphorylation
The formation of ATP by directly transferring a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism.
An organism that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present but that switches to fermentation under anaerobic conditions.
large protein that uses energy from H+ ions to bind ADP and a phosphate group together to produce ATP
Processes that occur when large molecules are broken down into smaller parts by the addition of water
a symbiotic relationship in which one member is benefited and the second is neither harmed nor benefited
a form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size
the measurement of water cloudiness; it may be affected by such things as sediment and plankton concentrations
live in or on the body of a host
reguires salt in osmotic pressure which kills bacteria in microbial growth and nutrition-( not in human body - will find in mines and ponds)
moderate temperature is needed in microbial growth and nutrition-- ( human pathogen)
cold temperature is needed in microbial growth and nutrition
grows best at higher CO2 tensions than normally present in the atmosphere
vacuole grows/shrinks, allowing it to hold more water so it doesn't burst
enzyme found in most plant and animal cells that functions as an oxidative catalyst
Growth curve lag
No or slow growth, getting used to the environment.
Enzymes characteristics description
a nucleotide derived from adenosine that occurs in muscle tissue
A process for synthesizing ATP using the energy of an electrochemical gradient and the ATP synthase enzyme.
characterized by or divided into or containing cells or compartments (the smallest organizational or structural unit of an organism or organization)
the metabolic processes whereby certain organisms obtain energy from organic moelcules
Mechanism of chemical reactions
A method of metabolic control in which the end product of a metabolic pathway acts as an inhibitor of an enzyme within that pathway
a coenzyme present in most living cells and derived from the B vitamin nicotinic acid
..., cells that do not contain nuclei
..., means that the 5' end of the strand is opposite to the 3' end on the other strand.
enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule
enzyme similar to DNA polymerase that binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands during transcription
an enzyme that unwinds the DNA double helix during DNA replication
A topoisomerase which adds negative supercoils to the template DNA during the replication process. This process a) removes the positive supercoils caused by helicase and b) promotes strand separation.
A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code.
Central dogma (DNA to RNA to Protein)
..., principle that bonds in DNA can form only between adenine and thymine and between guanine and cytosine
A specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that binds RNA polymerase and indicates where to start transcribing RNA.
protein that binds to the operator in an operon to switch off transcription
repressor inactive, operon on, allolactose, an isomer of lactose, derepresses the operon by inactivating the repressor, in this way the enzymes for lactose utilization are induced
sequence of a gene's DNA that transcribes into protein structures
chemical changes in just one base pair of a gene
The transfer of only those genes near the prophage site on the bacterial chromosome.
high frequency of recombination; sex factor gets incorporated into the bacterial genome so when conjugation bridge forms, the whole bacterial chromosome duplicates and attempts to transfer over, many times conjugation bridge breaks before all of it can get over
Number of genes is not correlated to genome size
use of bacterial genetics to help screen for substances that might cause cancer
Genetic engineering & recombinant DNA
taking DNA from one source into a DNA of another source so that the new combination of DNA is expressed.
procedure used to separate and analyze DNA fragments by placing a mixture of DNA fragments at one end of a porous gel and applying an electrical voltage to the gel
Examples of restriction endonucleases
(Eco RI & Hind III)
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
A technique for amplifying DNA in vitro by incubating it with specific primers, a heat-resistant DNA polymerase, and nucleotides.
the process of determining the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule
tagging and identification device, sort strand of single-stranded nucleic acids that hybidize specifically with complementary streches of neuleotides on test samples
Southern Blot Test
Is a method routinely used in molecular biology for detection of a specific DNA sequence in DNA samples. Southern blotting combines transfer of electrophoresis-separated DNA fragments to a filter membrane and subsequent fragment detection by probe hybridization.
Western Blot Test
a blood test to detect the presence of antibodies to specific antigens such as the HIV; regarded as more precise than ELISA
An organism is one that contains a new piece of DNA spliced into a chromosome (recombinant DNA) in each of it's cells
- New piece of DNA enables the organism to produce a different protein
- Inserted DNA may come from a different species or from a different organism of the same species
a general term for the research activity that creates a copy of some biological entity (a gene or organism or cell)
The insertion of working copies of a gene into the cells of a person with a genetic disorder in an attempt to correct the disorder
a technique used especially for identification (as for forensic purposes) by extracting and identifying the base-pair pattern in an individual's DNA
Examples of genetic engineering
Gene therapy, cloning, transgenic organisms, genetically modified organisms
Any of the pairs formed between complimentary bases in the two nucleotide chains of DNA, such as A-T and C-G (DNA) A-U and C-G (RNA)
fragments of the DNA from the entire genome, place each fragment in its own plasmid, place each plasmid in its own host bacteria
Hemophilus influenzae requires hemin (X factor) to synthesize cytochromes and NAD+ (V factor) from other cells. For what does it use these cofactors, (ie. Cytochromes and NAD+) Be specific! What diseases does this organism cause?
Cytochromes are proteins with an iron-containing group, related to the heme group, which are capable of existing alternately as a reduced form of Fe++ and and oxidized form of Fe+++. These cytochromes are involved in electron transport chains. It needs NaD+ to acquire an electron.
Haemophilus influenza is caused by a Gram-negative bacterium. These pathogenic organisms invade the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract, mouth, vagina, and the intestinal tract. The disease relies on X factor, which is a blood hemoglobin, to synthesize the important areas of the cytochromes.
The bacterial enzyme streptokinase is used to digest fibrin (blood clots) in patients with atherosclerosis. Why doesn't injection of streptokinase cause a streptococcal infection? How do we know the streptokinase will digest fibrin only and not food tissues?
Streptokinase actually indirectly breaks down blood clots via the activation of another enzyme known as plasminogen which ultimately cleaves into plasmin which is the "action taker" in breaking down clots. Since streptokinase is only an enzyme and not a weaken pathogen such as vaccines, streptococcus won't invade the host.Fibrinolytic produces plamin. IV administered for heart attack dissolves clots in walls of arteries. Enzymes don't cause disease. Virus or infection cause disease. Enzymes are specific, doesn't eat everything.
Clostridium and Streptococcus are both catalase negative. Streptococcus grows by fermentation. Why is Clostridium killed by oxygen and Streptococcus is not?
Clostridium lacks cytochromes, enzymes, catalase, and peroxidase. It's a strict/obligate anaerobe. It dies from oxygen, uses fermentation, turns lactic acid into energy. Streptococcus is aerobic, also lacks catalase, has peroxidase which neutralizes superoxide and hydrogen peroxide and allows them to survive in oxygen environments.
Bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs is on the increase. Using your knowledge of microbial genetics, discus at least 2 specific cell mechanisms that would allow development of antimicrobial resistance.
4. Two specific cell mechanisms that allow development for antimicrobial resistance- conjugation, and transduction. Conjugation is direct, bacterial sex: attachments of two related species and the formation of a bridge that can transport DNA. Resistance plasmids, or factors that bear genes for resisting antibiotics and other drugs are commonly shared among bacteria. Transduction is indirect, e.g. staph. Donor is lysed bacterial cell. Defective bacteriophage is carrier. Live recipient cell of same species as donor. DNA is transferred through action of bacterial virus. Transposons "genejumpers" shifting from one part of the gene to another. Chromosome to plasmid, or plasmid to chromosome. The effect is to scramble the genetic language.
Discuss the differences in growth requirements between a photoautotroph and a chemoheterotroph.
A photoautotroph gets its energy by producing its own food in the light. In other words, it can photosynthesize. It also needs inorganic nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus (and others such as silica and iron if in the ocean) in order to grow.
A chemoheterotroph gets its energy by consuming other organisms and breaking the chemical bonds that have formed between the basic molecules of their carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. It also needs nutrients to grow, but these are organic and are gotten from their food.Lithoautotrophs neither sun nor organic nutrients rely totally on inorganic minerals, e.g. iron.
Human Herpesvirus-8 (HHV-*) is common in certain parts of Africa, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean but it is rare elsewhere except in AIDS patients. Genetic analyses indicate that the African strain is not changing, whereas the Western strain is accumulating changes. Using the portions of the HHV-8 genomes shown below that encode one of the viral proteins, how similar are these two viruses? What mechanism can account for the changes? What diseases does HHV-8 cause?
Western: 3' ATGGAGTTCTTCTGGACAAGA
Aftican 3' ATAAACTTTTTCTTGACAACG
6. Human Herpescirus-8 (HHV-*) causes Kaposi sarcoma, systemic skin lesions (AIDS patients). Treatment is HAART which stands for reverse transcriptase inhibitors plus protease inhibitors. These are the cocktail of drugs given in the western world by combining the two interrupts it in two different phases of its cycle. It has helped with the incidence of viral drug resistance because the virus would have to undergo three separate mutations separately at nearly impossible odds. The African strain is the original strain since they don't have the resources to treat it and thus the virus doesn't mutate. The western strain is mutated due to medications we throw at it. The mechanisms that account for these mutations are insertions, deletions, and frameshifts. They have 4 out of 7 amino acids created based on codons in common and 3 out of 7 different.
what are two areobic enzymes?
catalase and SOD
microbial growth -where do psychrotropic live?
live at refridge temps. ex. listeria monocytogens --- in cold cuts cause still births and death in young children
what are thermophiles?
like heat , like compost piles
most microbila grow at what ph?
what are heterotroph ?
us, sugar, protein, lipids, - depends on other life form
what are autotroph?
self feeders, inorganic molecules, ex. co 2
what harmless molecule does h2o2 change into?
anaerobes are ?
killed by o2
facultative is ?
wishy washy bacteria - entrobacterocem e. coli
osmosis is the diffusion of
water,( hypotonoc, hypertonic, and isotonic).- water moves toward the higher solute concentration areas
2 types of chemoheterotrops
saprobic and parasitic
decomposers of plant litter, animal matter, and dead microbes
what are parasitic chemoheterotrophs
live in or on the body of a host.
chemoautottropd are aka
chemolithoauttrophs - get energy from oxidation of inorganic no3 and so3
get c from organic compounds get enery from other compounds, not also organice
carbon from co2 energy from ligto
energy comes from
water always goes to the
diffuision goes from
highest to lowest concentration
concentration and permeability affect
measure the concentration of solutions
with or along concentration gradient - no energy needed
against the flow
go against gradient - needs energy , pushing a rod up a hill
The larger a cell becomes, the more demands the cell places on its DNA. In addition, the cell has more trouble moving enough nutrients and wastes across the cell membrane. So the cell replicates itself and produces another cell just like it.
a small molecule that binds to a bacterial repressor protein and changes its shape, allowing it to switch an operon off
any of various controls or devices for regulating or controlling fluid flow, pressure, temperature, etc.
region of chromosome in an operon to which the repressor binds when the operon is "turned off"
A 'packaging' event. Lytic phage infects bacterium, leading to cleavage of bacterial DNA and synthesis of viral proteins. Parts of bacterial chromosomal DNA may become packaged in viral capsid. Phage infects another bacterium, transferring these genes.
sequence of a eukaryotic gene's DNA that is not translated into a protein
substitute one base pair for another, result is the same amino acid and has no phenotypic effect
mutation that shifts the "reading" frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
when a mutated gene reverses to its original base composition. (second mutation that undoes the first mutation)
Three-base sequence in a transfer RNA molecule base that pairs with a complementary codon in mRNA
one example is phage lamda, cut out nonessential phage genes (with EcoRI) and insert DNA fragments, these have a high efficiency at transferring DNA into bacterial cells, can insert as much as 23 kb of DNA, only phage DNA will insert into virions ensuring DNA will be replicated after infection
Yellow fever, Dengue fever, Rift Valley fever, Encephalitis
gene expression is normally on, but can be turned off by a repressor (associated with anabolic enzymes)
amphibolic Biochemical pathways
anabolic Biochemical pathways
+∆G; energy comes from the catabolic pathways; getting bigger
anaerobic electron acceptor
inorganic compounds such as sulfate, nitrate and carbonate
fermentation electron acceptor
Anaerobic; Acid is usually an endproduct.
Energy from substrate level phosphorylater
Electron acceptor is the bacterial cell wall.
Part of the electron transport chain. A process occurring in the mitochondria that results in the formation of ATP from the flow of electrons across the inner membrane to bind with oxygen.
have a cell wall and cell membrane, do not have a nucleus, genetic material is in the cytoplasm, contain ribosomes and no other organelles, and are much smaller then plant and animal cells
an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of superoxide into hydrogen peroxide and oxygen
Enzymes characteristics naming
Growth curve log
Growth curve stationary
As many cells are dying as being created
Growth curve death
Waste products are toxic, food is gone
an interest followed with exaggerated zeal
An iron-containing protein that is a component of electron transport chains in the mitochondria and chloroplasts of eukaryotic cells and the plasma membranes of prokaryotic cells
Metabolic pathways cyclic
Metabolic pathways convergent
Metabolic pathways divergent
kilo base pairs
Short fragments of DNA that are a result of the synthesis of the lagging strand during DNA replication.
DNA replication in which each of the parental strands is read to make a complementary daughter strand, ethus each new DNa molecule is composed of half the parental molecule paired with a newly synthesized strand.
organisms made up of one or more cells that have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
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