Paper 4 (Question 1): Spoken Language and Social Groups
Terms in this set (29)
Each speaker's sense of his or her own linguistic image and worth.
Acts which could threaten a speaker's sense of face making speakers feel intimidated, ignored or ridiculed rather than supported and included.
Being complimentary to a speaker before starting a potentially face-threatening act.
Social behaviour in conversation which avoids imposing on others. Achieved by saying please or acknowledging imposition and then apologising.
Communication Accommodation Theory (CAT)
A theory by Howard Giles which argues that when people interact, they adjust their speech, vocal patterns and gestures to accommodate to others.
Making speech, vocal patterns or gestures similar to another speaker to accommodate them.
Making speech, vocal patterns or gestures different from another speaker to emphasise differences or to create a distance between ourselves and others.
Language that may develop when two groups of people with different languages meet. The pidgin has some characteristics of each language.
A pidgin language that evolves to the point at which it becomes the primary language of the people who speak it.
Language to include or exclude
Broad terms for the functioning of groups in society which might have differences in language. Frequently accompanied by sociological concepts relating to ethnicity and politics.
Individuals accommodate to each other by adopting similar speech patterns for inclusion in the group whey wish to be part of (such as a social class).
Research by Naomi S Baron highlights concern about the increased use of acronyms (lol, omg...), abbreviations, emoticons, non-standard spellings, jargon (such as text speak) as well as a reduction in the use of standard punctuation and capital letters (among teenagers and other groups). Prescriptivists may discuss whether this non-standard form of writing is correct. Certain groups who do not regularly write in this way might be excluded.
The view that language should have a strict set of rules that must be obeyed in speech and writing.
The view that no use of language is incorrect and that variation should be acknowledged and recorded rather than corrected.
Moving backwards and forwards between different registers or levels of formality of language depending on the audience (e.g. close friend, teacher, employer).
Level of formality of language (e.g. formal, colloquial (casual), slang and non-standard or frozen (unchanging language - for example, in the Bible)
Standard English is followed in both speech and writing.
Everyday language of discourse; the register used by friends and the more informal media.
Slang and non-standard (register)
Used more widely in spoken than in written language. Used in situations which demand a more basic and very informal variety of language.
Frozen language (register)
Language which is unchanging and full or archaisms (words and phrases used in earlier times but no longer in use).
Unusual, direct, sometimes offensive language which is not regarded as standard. It may not be considered polite and may feature words or phrases concerned with sexuality and bodily functions. Words are always changing and can become dated very quickly. It acts as an identity marker for groups.
Relates to technical words and phrases used by specialist groups, or by professionals such as doctors and lawyers.
The way words are pronounced. Associates a person with a certain region (apart from Received Pronunciation).
An accent in English which does not indicate a person's geographical location and which is recognised as having a high social status.
This accent originated in the areas around the River Thames in England. It is a mixture of Received Pronunciation and London speech and is now found in many areas of the English-speaking world and is often spoken by younger people.
The unique combination of words, expressions and constructions that an individual habitually uses. If you have ever mimicked a teacher's habitual way of speaking to a class, you have noticed features of this.
The kind of language we draw on to display our membership of specific social groups, eg age, gender, social class, ethnicity, occupation, interests.
The accent, lexis and grammar of a specific geographical area.
The deliberate use of misspellings to identify a speaker who is using a regional form of colloquial English (in order to give verisimilitude - the appearance of being real - to conversations in literature).
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