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73 terms

Buddhism, Confucianism, Daoism, Shinto

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Shangdi (Shang Ti)
"lord on high" a supreme deity regarded in ancient chinese religion as the ruler of a domain in nature and spirits
Yin
force that is female, dark, and passive; part of the Chinese belief of dualism or balance in life
Yang
force that is male, bright, and active; part of the Chinese belief of dualism or balance in life
Syncretism
the union (or attempted fusion) of different systems of thought or belief (especially in religion or philosophy)
Li
Sacred Chinese rituals of ancestor worship- more like honoring ancestors
Tian
A Chinese term for Heaven or God in the first millennium BCE, when Confucius lived
Dao
"the way"
Kong Fuzi
also called Confucius) a man born in 551 BCE who developed the teachings of Confucianism
Rujiao
the teaching based on Conficius; teaching of the scholars
6 classics of Confucius
Reviving these classics could help change society- Yjing, poetry, history, rituals, music, and dance
Hsiao
The cornerstone of social order for Confucian ethics; it's the principle of filial piety, or the righteous behavior of a son. - If all live this way, and don't bring shame on their father's name, all of society will be ordered and harmony will come
Li
demonstrating respect for one's ancestors by bringing gifts to their grave and keeping it tended
Jen
Chinese "goodness" the supreme human virtue, doing one's best to treat others as one would wish to be treated
Analects
a record of the words and acts of the central Chinese thinker and philosopher Confucius and his disciples- containsJen
Mengzi
390-305 BCE, believed in the goodness of human nature and that people were naturally good. Name was Latinized as Mencius- added the virtue of Yi to confucianism
Yi
it is the moral duty of rulers to govern by the principle of humanity and the good of the people
xunzi (Hsun Tzu)
follower of Confucius; stressed that humans were inherently lazy and evil and required an authoritarian government.
neo-confucianism
Term used to describe new approaches to understanding classic Confucian texts that became the basic ruling philosophy of China from the Song period to the twentieth century.
lao tzu
- known as the Father of Taoism
- Sixth century B.C. philosopher Lao Tzu (or 'Old Sage') is credited with starting the philosophy of Taoism. Some scholars believe that he was a slightly older contemporary of Confucius.
the gorge of lu
Confucius shows up at a gorge with a waterfall and attempts to rescue an old man swirling in the pond. The old man gets tossed out of the pond and is seen walking away from the gorge. Astounded, Kung Fuzi asked the man how he didn't drown. The old man said that he survived because he didn't struggle and became one with the water.
dao
the way of harmonizing yourself with the world is to engage only in yin energy
literati
Daoism is defined by scholars in order to cover the literati - which are the philosophical tradition behind Daoism
Dao de Jing
book Lao-Tse may have written, made up of 81 chapters, means: way of virtue/classic, scholars believe to be most influential book in history, Dao- the way De-virtue/strength Ching/Jing-scripture/classic
Zhuangzi
The author of a book of the same name. Shared many of the central ideas of the Laozi, such as the usefulness of the useless and the relativity of ordinary distinctions.
Jing
vital essence: non-physical stuff that underlies everything
- generative substance of cosmic proportions that manifests itself in the framework of the heavens, Earth, and human beings
- more basic than Qi
located several inches below the navel
Qi
the circulating life energy that in Chinese philosophy is thought to be inherent in all things
Shen
the spirit - resonates in the head
Chang Tao-Ling (Zhang Dao Ling)
"heavenly master" Worship of Lao Tzu as a supreme god
Cultivation of immortality through 'alchemical' practices.
Developed a quasi-military organization
Celestial deities that were controlled by celestial master's priests
highest purity daoism
Dead ancestor named Lady Wei sent revelations to her aristocratic family, which revealed the names and powers of newly discovered deities, mediation methods, alchemy and rituals. focused on meditation for purifying the body with divine energies to rise up in broad daylight. didn't reach the masses but influences Daoism
Complete perfection
form of Daoism; founded by Wang Chongyang; celibate, monastic; promotes unity of all faiths; unites Daoist inner alchemy with Buddhist meditation and Confucian social morality; focuses on meditation and non-attachment to the world
Taji quan (Tai chi chaun)
An ancient Chinese system of philosophy exercises, which uses slow movements to help one become part of the universal flow of energy; movement light and agile - considered the unobstructed flow of qi in the body; based completely on yin, not yang
Qigong
a component of traditional Chinese medicine that combines movement, meditation, and regulation of breathing to enhance the flow of qi, improve blood circulation, and enhance immune function
Falun Gong
Chinese movement founded by Li Hogzhi 1992
Practice includes meditation, exercise, and regulated breathing
People originally good, but caught up in samsara when they developed selfishness
Must cultivate kindness, selflessness to reach enlightenment; he proposed that he put a Falun-dharma wheel in the belly of the followers to perform advanced energy exercises
Dao Deching (Tao TeChing)
5,000 characters that Laozi wrote on the guard post. Contains the philosophy of Lao Tzu
Wu wei
"Non-action," "not doing," or "inaction"; the Taoist form of action, meaning to do nothing in such a way that all things are accomplished and the world is brought into subjection to the Tao. instead of struggling, channel yin
Tai Chi
a Chinese system of slow meditative physical exercise designed for relaxation and balance and health
Feng shui
literally means "wind water"; Chinese art and science of placement and orientation of tombs, dwellings, buildings, cities. Structures and objects are positioned in a way (often in line with the compass lines) to channel flows of energy in favorable ways. It is not an official religion.
Shinto
The traditional religion of Japan. It is indigenous to the people
Kami
divine spirits that dwelled in nature
State Shinto
An official cult created after the Meiji restoration; it gave the emperor heavenly qualities and was banned after WWII. Amplified the Japanese tradition of ancestor respect
Shin do (Shinto)
origin of the word - "shin"-the way of divine beings; "do"-the places that divine beings are found
Kamikaze
Divine wind. It refers to the typhoon that the Japanese believed aided them in keeping the Mongols from taking over Japan in 1274 and 1281. Symbol of the divine protection of Japan by the Kami
Iconoclastic
characterized by attack on established beliefs or institutions; opposed to divine images of the gods. At times, Shinto has been very iconoclastic. The insides of the Jinja do not contain any divine images
Miko
Priest's assistant
wears white kimono with red skirt underneath
unmarried woman
Amatsukami
heavenly gods; Kami of the heavens; sun-the most powerful heavenly Kami. Includes the clouds, moon, rain, thunder, etc.
Kunitsukami
Usually mountains; the earthly objects are bound up with the divinity - they are inseparable; can include rivers, majestic trees, waterfalls
Magatsui-no
negative Kami; hurricanes, earthquakes, Tsunamis, things that may affect beings; you remain in harmony with other Kami so that the negative Kami stays asleep
Tsumi
impurity or misfortune, a quality that Shinto purification practices are designed to remove; not necessarily moral impurities, just things that people do that put them out of harmony with Kami, i.e., repeated contact with corpses, unkind actions to others, women menstruating; when the tsumi of society builds up, negative Kami can act up
Ohari
one kind of purification ritual; priests use items to do away with tsumi - flags, incense, etc.; used to break up the negative energy; includes the waving of a branch of the sacred sakaki tree that is often used in rituals and festivals
Sakaki
An evergreen tree whose foliage is symbolic of purification.
Misogi
A ritual of purification that involves standing under a waterfall. Brings you into awareness of the universe, for example, looking at the stars at night, or being in awe of a natural wonder
Meiji
The period of Japanese History from 1867 - 1912 during which the country was ruled by Emperor Mutsuhito and Experienced Modernization. Regime that took steps to make sure that Shinto became the spiritual basis of the government
Jinja
a Shinto shrine, houses the Kami, which energizes the shrine & makes it sacred. They range in size from small to very grand. Most people in Japan do not live more than a mile or 2 from a shrine
Kojiki
"The record of ancient matters" a collection of Japanese narratives, including myths of the origin of the world and Japan
Torii
The gate before a shrine which separates the mundane world from the sacred enclosure; humans must participate in Tsumi (purification rituals) in order to approach the shrine
Mengzi
(Mencius) A follower of Confucius who stressed the goodness of human nature, and the virtue of yi (righteous conduct).
Kanagara
the esoteric practices that only the few participate in. They use meditation to calm the mind so that you can feel the presence of the Kami
Exoteric practices
(should this be "esoteric practices"?) practices that are expected of everyone. In Shintoism, this may involve visiting shrines every once in a while and performing Tsumi - purification rituals
Naobi no Mitma
"Divine Spirit of Rectification" --text written in the 18th century about the state cult of Shinto. Meiji regime promoted the idea that the sun goddess gave the emperor his imperial power. concept that the sun goddess determined that for as long as time endures, Japan should be ruled by her descendants
Sect Shinto
Type of Shinto created during the nineteenth century with formation of 13 Shinto groups. Unlike traditional Shinto, these groups do not worship at shrines, but in congregational halls. Legal designation originally created in the 1890s to separate government-owned shrines from local religious practices
Tenrikyo Movement
founded by Miki Nakayama who was acting as a medium for her son whom she said was possessed by 10 kami. She wrote poetry which is the sacred scriptures of the new religion
Oomoto Movement
Developed from the revelations given to Madame Nao Deguchi while she was reportedly possessed by a kami. Has a universalistic view encouraging self-examination, environmental restoration, and global religious cooperation; denies that it is a sect of Shinto
Izanagi
in Shinto mythology, he is the male counterpart who invites Izanami to create the islands of Japan; he produces the sun goddess
Izanami
in Shinto mythology, she is the female counterpart who was invited by Izanagi to create the islands of Japan; she dies
Nihongi
"Chronicles of Japan"; also known as the Nihon Shoki. Like the Kijiki, it contains the basic myth about the creation of Japan. In the 8th century, the Japanese emperor asked the scribes to come together and select one creation story. The story creates the emperor's claim to power
Amaterasu
Sun Goddess that rules over all things, produced by Izangi, all Japanese emperors claim to be decent from
Pure land Buddhism
A denomination of Buddhism that taught that believers would be reborn in a blissful, pure land or paradise. There was an Amidha Buddha who was so interested in people achieving nirvana that he created a pure land in between nirvana and this world that has no sickness, death or old age, so it is easier to achieve nirvana
Zen Buddhism
a Buddhist sect that emphasizes enlightenment through meditation and stresses simplicity and discipline
Zazen
seated meditation
Satori
the Zen experience of enlightenment, a flash of insight in which the true nature of one's being is known directly
Koan
a question used by Zen teachers to boggle the student's mind and thus liberate direct awareness
Chi (Qi)
the circulating life energy that in Chinese philosophy is thought to be inherent in all things; composed of yin and yang
Shang Ti
(china) "ruler upon high" or "first ancestor" ancestor of the shang dynasty- royal family who becomes the main dynasty