The office of the presidency was established by ______ of the Constitution.
A. Article I
B. Article II
C. Article III
D. Article IV
E. Article V
What did the framers mean to accomplish by indirect election of the president?
A. to make a more independent and powerful chief executive
B. to bind the president to the will of the people
C. to make the president responsible to state and national legislatures
D. to create an imperial presidency to counter the power of Congress
E. to increase the strength and influence of political parties
______ powers are the most common form of constitutional powers possessed by the president.
When the president infers powers from the "rights, duties, and obligations" of the presidency, these are called
A. delegated powers.
B. necessary and proper powers.
C. inherent powers.
D. war powers.
E. expressed powers.
The president's position as head of state is defined in the Constitution by all of the following powers except
The power to declare war is given to whom under the Constitution?
A. the president
B. the Senate
C. both houses of Congress
D. the Senate, with the approval of the president
E. the Department of Defense
The president must share foreign policy powers with
A. the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
C. the states.
D. the vice president.
E. the Department of Defense.
When North Korea invaded South Korea in 1950,
A. Congress declared war before President Truman could formally request it.
B. Truman asked for a declaration of war and received one.
C. Truman asked for a declaration of war and was rebuffed.
D. Truman sent American troops to Korea without asking for a declaration of war.
E. Truman did not immediately send American troops to Korea because the Supreme Court ruled that it would be an unconstitutional use of presidential power.
The ______ asserted that the president could send American troops into action abroad only in the event of a declaration of war or other statutory authorization by Congress, or if American troops were attacked or directly endangered.
A. War Powers Resolution of 1973
B. National Security Act of 1947
C. Neutrality Act of 1937
D. Boland Amendment of 1982
E. Arms Control Export Act of 1976
In undertaking the campaign against the Taliban in 2001, George W. Bush
A. sought and received a declaration of war from Congress.
B. sought but failed to receive a declaration of war from Congress.
C. sought and received congressional authorization for the bombing but not a declaration of war.
D. took action without approval from Congress.
E. launched military operations only after Congress passed a formal declaration of war that legally required the president to attack Afghanistan.
The goal of the War Powers Resolution was to
A. compel a congressional declaration of war for every large-scale military operation.
B. limit the ability of Congress to cut off funding for troops when the president sends them overseas without congressional approval.
C. limit the power of the president to commit American troops to military action without authorization from Congress.
D. end the Vietnam War.
E. give the president more freedom in determining when and where to deploy American military forces.
When Dwight Eisenhower sent federal troops into Little Rock High School in 1957, it demonstrated that
A. the president may make unilateral use of the emergency powers to protect states against domestic disorder.
B. the president requires the federal court's approval before using troops in domestic disturbances.
C. the use of the president's emergency powers against domestic disorder necessitates a request by the governor of the affected state.
D. the president needs congressional authorization to use troops in both domestic and international situations.
E. the president can only use troops in domestic situations when the health and safety of children under the age of eighteen is threatened.
Which of the following statements about how different presidents have used the power of amnesty or pardon is false?
A. George Washington declared amnesty to all Americans who fought for the British during the War for Independence.
B. Andrew Johnson declared amnesty to all Confederate soldiers.
C. Gerald Ford pardoned Richard Nixon for crimes he may have committed.
D. Jimmy Carter declared amnesty for all draft evaders during the Vietnam War.
E. George W. Bush was the first president who refused to issue pardons.
Why was George Washington's reception of Edmond Genet as ambassador of France during the French Revolution so significant?
A. It demonstrated that the United States could use diplomacy to stay out of European conflicts.
B. It reflected the authority of the president to officially recognize specific regimes as the sovereign power of a nation when there is doubt as to who rules.
C. It was the first time any nation had recognized the United States as independent.
D. It prevented the economic embargo of American goods by the king of France.
E. It ensured that France would be America's ally in any foreign conflict.
In order to get around the need for Senate approval of treaties, many contemporary presidents have made us of ______ in foreign affairs.
B. international protocols
C. executive immunity
D. executive agreements
E. bypass agreements
Executive agreements differ from formal treaties in that they
A. have been ruled unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court.
B. must be approved by the U.S. Supreme Court but not by Congress.
C. do not have to be approved by the Senate.
D. do not have to be approved by the House.
E. are generally formulated at meetings of the United Nations.
The State of the Union address
a. was required by a law passed by Congress in 1802 and renewed ever since.
b. is requested by the president, and comity demands that his request is always accepted.
c. is based on tradition, but was discontinued during the Great Depression and World War II.
d. is mandated by the Constitution.
e. is requested by the media and nearly always agreed to by the president and Congress.
Why is the president's State of the Union address important?
A. It is often the only time that members of Congress get to question the president directly.
B. It is an opportunity for the president to set the legislative agenda by initiating proposals and directing public attention to the executive's goals.
C. It is an opportunity for the president to highlight the positive actions of the previous year.
D. It is the only time the president is constitutionally allowed to address Congress.
E. It determines the exact budget for the upcoming year.
What is required for Congress to override a presidential veto?
A. a majority of both houses of Congress
B. two-thirds of both houses of Congress
C. three-fourths of both houses of Congress
D. a unanimous vote of both houses of Congress
E. A president's veto cannot be overridden unless it concerns the budget, in which case it requires a three-fourths majority of both houses
The president's power to set the debate concerning public policy in Congress is called
A. an executive mandate.
B. an executive privilege.
C. a legislative initiative.
D. an executive order.
E. a presidential prerogative.
An executive order is
A. a rule or regulation issued unilaterally by the president, with the status of a law.
B. an emergency decree that is law only for the duration of a crisis or pending congressional approval.
C. a demand to Congress that it vote on a particular piece of legislation.
D. any act of the executive branch that does not have to be made public.
E. a decree issued by the president that requires the federal courts to hear a particular case regarding the Constitution.
The president's delegated powers come from
A. the Constitution.
C. the states.
D. the president's party.
E. the Supreme Court.
Which of the following has caused an increase in the president's delegated powers?
A. recent constitutional amendments broadening the president's powers
B. the increasing scope and complexity of legislation
C. the War Powers Resolution
D. the shift toward a more bipartisan political environment in Congress
E. a series of Supreme Court decisions that have reinterpreted Article II of the Constitution
The Environmental Protection Agency was created in 1970 by
A. an executive order.
B. congressional legislation.
C. a treaty with Canada and Mexico.
D. executive privilege.
E. a Supreme Court decision.
The ______ is the informal designation for the heads of the major federal government departments.
A. White House staff
B. Committee of Staff
C. presidential advisory committee
E. Executive Office of the President
Which statement about the Cabinet is incorrect?
A. The Cabinet has no legal status under the Constitution.
B. The Cabinet does not make decisions collectively.
C. The Cabinet does not meet as a group, except during the State of the Union address.
D. The Senate must approve the president's choice of Cabinet secretaries.
E. Cabinet members are not responsible to the Senate or Congress at large.
The president has the power to appoint which of the following positions?
A. all members of the State Department
B. all state Supreme Court justices
C. cabinet secretaries
D. members of the House of Representatives who resign before their term has expired
E. the Speaker of the House
The Office of Management and Budget and the Council of Economic Advisers are both parts of
A. the Cabinet.
B. the White House staff.
C. the Office of the Vice President.
D. the Executive Office of the President.
E. the Department of the Interior.
The groups of advisers and analysts to the president are collectively called the
B. Kitchen Cabinet.
C. White House staff.
D. Executive Council of Advisers.
E. Department of State.
An informal group of advisers to the president is often called the
A. Kitchen Cabinet.
C. round table.
E. good ole boys (despite the fact that many women have entered these ranks).
What is the primary constitutional task of the vice president, besides succeeding the president in case of death, resignation, or incapacitation?
A. to serve as Speaker of the House of Representatives
B. to cast tie-breaking votes in the Senate
C. to act as a chief admiral of the U.S. Navy
D. to represent the president overseas
E. to run the day-to-day operations of the Executive Office of the President
The main political value of the vice president is to
A. bring the president votes in the election from a group or region that would not otherwise be a likely source of support.
B. draw negative attention away from the president during times of crisis.
C. give the president an institutional link to Congress.
D. act as the political party's chief fund-raiser.
E. promote bipartisanship with members of the opposing political party.
When are the president's partisan ties most important?
A. in winning support from public opinion
B. in raising campaign funds
C. in dealing with Congress on legislative matters
D. in making executive appointments
E. in negotiating treaties and executive agreements
According to the text, what are the three most common ways for a president to expand his base of power?
A. party support, popular mobilization, and administrative control
B. congressional mandate, judicial appointments, and constitutional amendments
C. referendums, initiatives, and litigation
D. fund-raising, advertising, and logrolling
E. gerrymandering, appropriations, and oversight of state governments
The first lady is an important resource for the president in his capacity as
A. head of government.
B. head of state.
C. commander in chief.
D. legislative initiator.
E. chief diplomat.
Which first lady was the first to seek and win public office on her own?
A. Dolly Madison
B. Eleanor Roosevelt
C. Betty Ford
D. Hillary Clinton
E. Laura Bush
The technique of popular mobilization dates back to the presidency of
A. Thomas Jefferson.
B. Ulysses Grant.
C. Theodore Roosevelt.
D. Franklin Roosevelt.
E. Andrew Johnson.
Why was it considered shocking when, after the Civil War, Andrew Johnson made a series of speeches seeking public support for his Reconstruction policies?
A. Johnson traveled with his own press secretary, the first time a president had used public relations officials.
B. During the nineteenth century, it was seen as undignified for a president to campaign on his own behalf.
C. Johnson did not speak to the general public, but instead spoke only to handpicked audiences where he knew he would be favorably received.
D. Johnson's speeches were delivered only in the former Confederate states and ignored the North, where he most needed support.
E. Johnson's speeches were the first to encourage women and African Americans to become active in politics.
What is the general tendency of a president's popularity?
A. Presidents usually begin with moderate ratings which move drastically up or down, depending on their success.
B. Presidents usually start out popular and decline over the next four years.
C. Presidents usually maintain the public approval ratings they had when entering office, unless there is an economic recession or international crisis.
D. Presidents usually begin very unpopular and increase their popularity significantly as their term in office continues.
E. No pattern has been discerned in presidential approval ratings.
The Executive Office of the President (EOP) was established
A. under George Washington in 1790.
B. under Andrew Jackson in 1829.
C. under Franklin Roosevelt in 1939.
D. under Lyndon Johnson in 1965.
E. under Bill Clinton in 1993.
When the White House directs administrative agencies to promulgate specific rules and regulations, this is called
A. regulatory review.
B. administrative oversight.
D. an executive agreement.
E. a mandate.
Which of the following actions was not the result of an executive order?
A. the Louisiana Purchase
B. the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II
C. the entrance into the United Nations
D. the annexation of Texas
E. the desegregation of the military
A signing statement is
A. an announcement the president makes about his interpretation of a congressional enactment he is signing into law.
B. an announcement made by a presidential candidate when formally accepting his or her party's nomination.
C. an announcement made by the president and the leader of a foreign country immediately following an executive agreement.
D. an announcement the president is required to make any time he issues an executive order.
E. a decree issued by Congress that demands the president sign a congressional enactment into law immediately.
Which of the following statements about signing statements is false?
A. Presidents have made signing statements throughout American history.
B. Ronald Reagan's attorney general, Edwin Meese, is credited with transforming the signing statement into a routine tool of presidential direct action.
C. George W. Bush issued hundreds of signing statements during his time in office.
D. Ever since Thomas Jefferson's presidency, all presidential signing statements have been recorded and added to the official legislative record.
E. Recent presidents have used signing statements in an attempt to negate congressional actions to which they objected.