32 terms

AP Biology Test Prep Chapter 9: Cell Division-Terms

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Binary Fission
Mechanism by which prokaryotic cells divide. The cell elongates and pinches into two new daughter cells.
G1 Phase
The first growth phase of the cell cycle that produces all the necessary raw materials for DNA synthesis.
S Phase
The DNA is copied so that each daughter cell has a complete set of chromosomes at the conclusion of the cell cycle.
G2 Phase
Second growth phase of the cycle that produces all the necessary raw materials for mitosis.
Mitosis/ M Phase
This is the stage of the cell cycle during which the cell separates into two new cells.
Interphase
The first three stages of the cycle, G1, S, G2. Accounts for approximately 90 percent of the cell cycle.
Prophase
Nucleus and nucleolus disappear; chromosomes appear as two identical, connected sister chromatids; mitotic spindle begins to form; centrioles move to opposite poles of the cell.
Metaphase
The sister chromatids line up along the middle of the cell, ready to split apart.
Anaphase
The split sister chromatids move via the microtubules to the opposing poles of the cell-the chromosomes are pulled to opposite poles by the spindle apparatus. Each pole ends up with a whole set of chromosomes.
Telophase
The nuclei for the newly split cells form; the nucleoli reappear, and the chromatin uncoils.
Cytokinesis
The physical separation of the newly formed daughter cells after meiosis and mitosis.
Chromatin
The uncoiled raw material that gives rise to the chromosomes.
Cell Plate
Plant cell structure constructed in the Golgi Apparatus composed of vesicles that fuse together along the middle of the cell, completing the separation process.
Cleavage Furrow
Groove formed in animal cells between the two daughter cells; this groove pinches together to complete the separation of the two cells after mitosis.
Mitotic Spindle
Apparatus constructed from microtubules that assists in the physical separation of the chromosomes during mitosis.
Checkpoints
Stop points throughout the cell cycle where the cell verifies that there are enough nutrients and raw materials to the next stage of the cycle.
Density-Dependent Inhibition
When a certain density of cells is reached, cell growth will slow or stop. This is because there are not enough raw materials for the growth and survival of more cells.
Growth Factors
Assist in the growth of structures.
Cyclin
Protein that accumulates during interphase; vital to cell cycle control.
Protein Kinase
Protein that controls the activities of other proteins through the addition of phosphate groups.
Haploid
An organism that has only one copy of each type of chromosome.
Diploid
An organism that has two copies of each type of chromosome. In humans, this refers to the pairs of homologous chromosomes.
Homologous Chromosomes
Chromosomes that resemble one another in shape, size, and function, and the genetic information they contain. They are not identical.
Gametes
Sex cells produced during meiosis in the human life cycle.
Spermatogenesis
Process by which the male gametes are formed. Four haploid sperm are produced during each meiotic cycle. This does not occur until puberty, and it occurs in the seminiferous tubules.
Oogenesis
Process by which female gametes are formed. Each meiotic cycle leads to the production of a single ovum, or egg.
Polar body
Castaway cell produced during female gamete formation that contains only genetic information.
Crossover
When the homologous pairs match up during prophase I of meiosis, complementary pieces from the two homologous chromosomes wrap around each other and are exchanged between the chromosomes. This is one of of the mechanisms that allows offspring to differ from their parents.
Life Cycle
Sequence of events that make up the reproductive cycle of an organism.
Alternation of Generations
Plant life cycle, so named because during the life cycle, plants sometimes exist as a diploid organism and at other times as a haploid organism.
Sporophyte
The diploid multicellular stage of the plant life cycle.
Gametophyte
A haploid multicellular organism.