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Terms in this set (39)
Secrete glandular products and form ducts that carry those sections away from the gland. May occur as separate organs, lining luminal surfaces of other organs or as patches of tissue within walls of other organs.
Synthesize and release secretions onto epithelial/luminal surface directly (unicellular glands, secretory sheets or intraepithelial glands) or indirectly via ducts (multicellular glands).
-secretions modified as move through duct system-change in concentration, removal/addition of substances etc.
-classified via secretion products, mode of secretion, and morphology (number of cells, branching pattern of ducts, secretory units and shape
No ducts, synthesize and release hormones directly into bloodstream/CT en route to blood stream to affect distant tissues.
-hormones may be releases into ECS to stimulate nearby cells (paracrine) or same cell in a feedback loop (autocrine)
Exocrine glands, classified by secretion product which is viscous, slimy and rich in large glycosylated proteins and some carbohydrates.
-most common secretion is mucinogen (glycoprotein precursor) that forms mucin when hydrated, which is a component of mucus.
ex: goblet cells (GI and resp. tracts), gastric mucus cells, nabothian glands of cervix, bulbouretheral/Bartholin glands, Burnner's glands (duodenum)
-mucin granules stain PAS positive and water soluble
Exocrine glands, classified by secretion product which is watery/low-viscosity and rich in poorly glycosylated/nonglycosulated proteins, typically enzymes and antibodies.
-histologically appear with round nuclei in cell center or at basal end with basophilic cytoplasm (high rER)
-ex: lacrimal glands, parotid gland, exocrine glands of pancreas, gastric chief cells.
Exocrine glands, classified by secretion product which is of intermediate consistency of mucous and serous. Will contain both types of secreting cells in variable proportions.
-histologically, fixation process causes mucin to swell, expanding mucous cells and squeezing cytoplasm of serous cells, forcing cytoplasm to outer (basal) edge of the unit and resulting in half moon appearance-demilunes
-ex: submandibular and sublingual glands (predominantly mucous) and prostate gland (predominantly serous)
Histological half-moon appearance of serous cells in mixed glands due to swelling of mucous cells pushing cytoplasm of serous cells to basal edge of the unit. This is an artifact of preparation and is not how these cells appear in life.
Exocrine glands, classified by secretion product which is waxy/oily and rich in fatty acids, wax esters and squalene. Sebaceous secretions known as sebum.
-histology with central round nuclei, sebum will stain lightly (H2O soluble) and often associated with hair follicles
-ex: found in skin (except in palms of hands and soles of feet). Different types of sebaceous glands specific to certain locations-areolar glands and meibomian glands (tarsal glands of eyelids)
-Holocrine glands in which mode of secretion is apoptosis
Sebaceous gland secretions
Exocrine glands, classified by mode of secretion, includes membrane-bound vesicles traveling to cell surface, fusing with cell membrane and releasing secretion product into lumen/duct via exocytosis with no loss of cytoplasm or cell membrane.
-most exocrine glands with this mode of secretion
Sweat glands that employ merocrine mode of secretion
Exocrine glands, classified by mode of secretion. Secretory products accumulate within the cells as it matures and then the cell undergoes apoptosis, cell disintegrates and releases contents into extracellular space along with bits of cellular "shrapnel". Loss of entire cell.
-ex: sebaceous glands
Exocrine glands, classified by mode of secretion. Membrane-bound vesicles travel to apical end of the cell and dissolve there (or are produced here). The secretion products collect in apical cytoplasm and apical end of cell pinches off with apical cytoplasm and membrane going with it (loss to cell). Thought to be a way to release very complex proteinaceous mixtures in large amounts, all at once.
-ex: most likely lipids secreted during lacation by mammary glands use this pathway, possible apocrine sweat glands, prostate and epididymis glands.
Single secretory cell distributed among other, non-secretory cells.
-ex: goblet cells (exocrine) which secrete mucin in intestines and respiratory system.
More than one secretory cell located together and working in concert. 3 main types:
1. secretory sheet
2. intraepithelial glands
3. complex glands
Multicellular exocrine gland. Continuous layer of secretory epithelium that lacks ducts (no lumen, no ducts). Cells secrete directly onto luminal epithelial surface.
-ex: mucous cells of surface epithelium that lines the stomach.
Multicellular exocrine glands. Small groups of secretory cells within a nonsecretory epithelium; often clustered around a small lumen or form very small tubes, but NO true duct of nonsecretory cells. Cells secrete directly onto lumbar epithelial surface.
ex: laryngeal mucosa, Eustachian tube
Secretory cells are organized into units/pockets/infoldings off of the main epithelial surface. Units secere into a duct system composed of nonsecretory cells.
-develop form invaginations of epithelial surface. Apical surface of each secretory cell faces the lumen of the secretory unit/duct
-ex: nearly every named multicellular exocrine gland in the body.
-classified based on branching patterns of their ducts and the shape and branching patters of their secretory portions.
Ducts of complex glands
-Simple: can be simple in which a single, unbranched duct carries secretory product from secretory unit and opens onto epithelial surface.
-Compound: branching ducts from separate secretory units converge to form a single duct that opens onto the epithelial surface.
Secretory units of complex multicellular glands
-Tubular: shaped like test tubes
-Acinar/alveolar: shaped like grapes
-Tubuloalveolar: combination of above (Erlenmeyer flask with a tall neck.
Secretory units themselves may also be coiled, branched, or neither.
Simple tubular multicellular glands
Overall test tube appearance. Secretory unit neither branched nor coiled.
ex: uterine glands, intestinal glands.
Naming of complex multicellular glands
First name indicates duct descriptor vs. second name indicates secretory unit descriptor
Simple coiled tubular
Long excretory duct, secretory portion with garden hose appearance.
Simple branched tubular
Secretory unit is branched (not duct). Each "test tube" dumps into common lumen of secretory cells, which transitions into a nonsecretory duct on it sway out.
ex: duodenal and endometrial glands.
Short straight duct terminating in a secretory sac. Round sack, "one grape".
ex: mucus-secreting glands of penile urethra, paraurethral glands.
Simple branched acinar
Short duct with branching of secretory portion.
ex: sebaceous glands, mucous glands of the cardia (stomach)
Lumped category including true compound tubular glands and compound branched tubular glands.
-difficult to distinguish two types
Ex: Brunner's glands (submucosa and duodenum), bulbourethral glands.
Compound acinar (racemous glands)
Lumped category that includes true compound acinar glands and compound branched acinar. In 3D, resemble bunches of grapes or raspberries.
-impossible to tell apart from compound tubuloacinar without serial sectioning.
ex: exocrine pancrease, paraotid gland, Bartholin's gland.
Common in mixed glands, often have both serous and mucous secretory units as well as mixed units with demilumes.
"Basket cells". Contractile cells derived from epithelium that develop some attributes of smooth muscle cells. Contraction helps to push secretions out of the gland (contracts secretory unit as a whole)
-location in body: mammary glands, sweat glands, salivary glands and iris of the eye.
-contain actin and myosin
-communication via desmosome and gap junctions
Benign tumors of glandular epithelial origin. Ex: colon polyps, most thyroid nodules
Malignant tumors of glandular epithelial origin.
-well-differentiated: resemble gland of origin and grow more slowly
-poorly-differentiated: do not resemble gland of origin and more aggressive.
-many adenocarcinomas associated with over production of mucin.
Viral infection causing large and painful swelling or parotid glands. Most common complication painful testicular inflammation, meningitis or hearing loss
Causes exocrine glands to oversecrete products, especially mucus, sweat and gastric juices.
Autoimmune disease in which white blood cells attack and invade exocrine glands, especially the salivery and lacrimal glands. Eventually these glands become fibrotic and are destroyed.
Blockage/inflammation of hair follicles results in clogged sebaceous glands (clogged with sebum). Infection/inflammation.
Blockage/inflammation of bartholin ducts opening into vulva.
Secretory unit + ducts
CT framework of parenchyma
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Anatomy body sections
Bone Structure & Physiology (ECL)
Chapter 11 - short - check
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