Monika Linehan. Painting Vocabulary.
Terms in this set (135)
A painting that features a heightened degree of abstraction.
Pigment dispersed in polymer-based synthetic resin emulsion that dries to a tough, nontoxic, flexible film.
Warm, strong colors such as red and yellow that appear to come toward the front of the picture plane.
The effect of colors and tones becoming paler and colder as they recede from the viewer, with diminishing light/dark contrasts.
An Italian term meaning "at first" and referring to paintings completed during one session, with each color laid on more or less as it will appear in the final painting and applied as wet paint to an already wet surface.
A balanced distribution of visual weight throughout a composition, without an exact mirroring of forms between the left and right halves of a painting.
In watercolor painting, jagged-edged blotches that sometimes occur when new paint is added into a wash that has not fully dried.
The condition when the visual weights of all elements in a composition are equally distributed.
The substance that holds the pigment particles together in a paint formulation and which attaches them to the support.
Brushstrokes that are blended carefully, so that the final surface has a smooth appearance.
The first stage of a painting, in which the main areas of tone and color are laid in broadly, to be refined in the later stages.
A term exclusive to watercolor painting, meaning opaque water-based paint. It sometimes refers to watercolor mixed with Chinese white, but is also used as an alternative term for gouache paints.
A technique of applying paint in layers so that the open spacing between strokes allows portions of underlying brushstrokes to remain visible.
Color that is not laid as a flat area and does not completely cover another color below or the color of the canvas or paper.
A heavy woven fabric, the most commonly used support for oil paintihg, and also frequently used for acrylics.
An Italian word meaning "bright-dark," used in connection with the exploitation of strong light and shade in a painting.
The term used to describe and measure the purity of a color.
An artwork developed by affixing various materials, such as pieces of paper, fabric, and photographs, to a flat surface (or the process of creating such an artwork).
Color Field Painting
A type of abstract painting making use of large areas of flat, unbroken color, developed in the U.S. in the 1940s and 50s.
Pairs of colors that appear opposite one another on the color wheel (red/green, violet/yellow), and when combined in a pure state, create a neutral gray.
The overall visual organization of an artwork.
A heightened concentration of forms in one particular area of a painting.
An artwork representing a sequence of events within the same continuous space or setting.
A relationship of opposing qualities in painting.
A condition in which the source of light is directly behind the form it illuminates.
A technique in which brushstrokes are applied in pattems that follow the surface of the forms they represent.
A painting technique in which a surface (the "decal") is painted and then pressed while still wet against the painting, then peeled away, revealing unexpected patterns.
The illusion of space in a painting.
Liquids used to thin down paint, such as turpentine or mineral spirits for oils and water for the water-based paints.
Light coming from a specific source.
An artwork in which the narrative elements are disjointed, overlapping, or blurred to such a degree that all efforts to produce a clear and unambiguous reading of the narrative is thwarted.
A chemical substance, usually a metallic salt, which accelerates the drying process of a paint film by absorption of oxygen.
A method of painting in which paint of a dry or stiff consistency is stroked across the canvas, usually with the bristles of the brush slightly splayed out.
Brushstrokes that preserve the distinctness of separate marks.
A small to medium-size painting on a portable support, rectangular (or sometimes oval) in shape.
A painting technique involving the application of pigments bound in hot wax.
Expanded Form Painting
A painting that has a nonrectangular, and/or nonportable, and/or nonflat support, often featuring the use of unfamiliar art materials.
The imagined plane that would be extended in all directions looking straight out horizontally.
Fat Over Lean
The traditional way of building up an oil painting, beginning with thin, non-oily paint (lean) and increasing the thickness and oil content as the painting proceeds.
The metal tube from which the hairs of a brush protrude.
A painting of something actual, as opposed to an abstract painting.
Figure Ground Shift
The condition when negative shapes in the background of a painting vie with one or more positive shapes in the foreground for the viewers attention.
Thin varnish sprayed onto a pastel drawing or painting to prevent the pigment smudging and slipping off the surface.
Key details found throughout a picture.
A technique for producing the illusion of an object's extension into space by contracting its form.
The process of selecting what aspects of the subject to include within an artwork's borders.
Painting executed on a freshly laid damp surface comprised of plaster and glue sizing.
A technique akin to grave rubbing, in which a piece of paper is placed over a textured or indented surface and rubbed over with a soft pencil, crayon, or pastel stick.
Art that depicts the casual fragments of everyday life and its surroundings.
Abstraction involving forms (usually with hard edges) derived directly or indirectly from geometry or mathematics.
A painting 'ground commonly made from chalk and glue.
The movement or position of an individual part of the body.
The technique of responding spontaneously with marks or brushstrokes to the whole sweep of the dynamic qualities of a subject's form and movement.
A technique of applying oil or acrylic color in thin, transparent layers so that the color beneath shows through, modifying the color of the glaze.
An ancient system of organizing the geometrical proportions of a composition to create a harmonious effect. This system is defined as a line, which is divided in such a way that the smaller part is to the larger part what the larger part is to the whole.
An opaque watercolor bound with gum arabic and chalk.
A painting technique in which an artist presses a canvas (already painted in on color) on top of a textured surface or object to create an imprint.
A French term for an achromatic painting in various tones of gray.
The surface coating of a support on which color is applied.
The medium used as a binder for watercolor pigment.
Colors that are close together on the color wheel (e.g., blues and violets, reds and yellows) and do not set up sharp contrasts.
A technique in which short, individual brushstrokes are applied parallel to one another, defining shape and volume.
A narrative painting of a biblical, classical, literary, or historical subject, usually taken from a well known written text.
The indication where sky and earth would appear to meet if the ground were perfectly flat and nothing blocked the view. It also corresponds to the eye level of the viewer.
The color name. The property of color that shows its relationship in terms of wavelength to other colors in the spectrum.
The subjective, symbolic meanings of subject matter.
A term used to describe either the particular subject being painted, the painting itself, or a specific part of a painting.
A thick application of paint to a canvas or other support, applied with either a brush or a knife.
A line that is not fully present but is completed in the viewer's mind.
A layer of color applied to a ground, often used as a middle tone in a painting.
In painting, a scene showing the inside of a room, building, or other enclosure.
A system of conventions for representing depth on a flat surface. Forms in the distance are represented as smaller in scale, but parallel lines do not converge.
A painting of an outdoor scene.
A technique used in watercolor and gouache work, involving removing wet or dry paint from the paper with a brush, sponge, or tissue to soften edges or make highlights.
A scientific method of determining the correct placement of forms in space and the degree to which such forms appear to diminish size at a given distance.
The natural color of an object as seen by the eye.
The condition of light when a glow seems to be generated from within an object or surface. Also, a condition when forms themselves are aglow, as if they are translucent and light is shining through them rather than falling on them from an outside source.
The appearance of light being reflected from a surface made from a material such as silk or metal.
A piece of bamboo or dowel rod with a pad at one end, used for steadying the hand when painting fine details.
A painting technique in which some sort of material (e.g., masking fluid, masking tape) is applied to the support before paint is laid and removed after the paint has dried to protect specific areas of the painting.
1) The material used for painting (i.e. oil, watercolor, acrylic); 2) another term for binder, a substance used in the manufacture of paint; 3) traditional or synthetic substances added to the paint while working to make it thicker, thinner, more glossy, and so on.
Making an object appear solid and three-dimensional, through gradations of tone and color.
A narrative artwork showing a succession of scenes from the same story, typically depicted in a sequential manner.
A painting that represents a moment or moments of an actual or implied story that unfolds over time.
Space in between, around, or behind positive shapes.
A painting with no recognizable subject matter outside of the formal elements.
A slow-drying medium consisting of pigment combined with a binder of linseed oil.
The quality of paint that will not allow light or other pigments to show through.
A phenomenon that occurs from placing distinct hues in close proximity, so that when viewed from a distance, a new color is perceived.
A looser-style abstraction involving the personal expression of the artist's sensibility and exploration of visual form.
A medium used in watercolor work to improve the flow of the paint.
A characterization or expressionistic way of painting in which there is definite surface texture, and brush strokes are clearly visible and overlap.
The character of the physical surface of the painting.
A portable surface for mixing colors.
The plane occupied by the physical surface of the picture.
Finely ground particles of color (natural or synthetic) that are combined with liquid vehicles to produce paint.
Any flat or curved surface that is tilted into space and that can combine with other planes to define a volume.
A French term describing paintings done in the open air direct from the subject.
A method for applying paint in small dabs of pure color, which create optical mixtures in the eye when seen from several feet away.
An image of an identifiable person.
The arrangement of the entire body.
Shapes in the foreground or shapes of represented things.
The three colors in the spectrum that cannot be made from mixtures of other colors. The primaries are red, yellow, and blue.
Laying a ground such as gesso on a canvas, board, or other support.
Cool colors, such as blues, blue-greens, and blue-grays, which seem to move away from the viewer.
Another term for figurative painting.
A painting produced on the "reverse" side of a transparent support, the completed painting is viewed from the front side, through the support.
The actual or implied repetition of related formal elements.
Small, linear highlights made by scratching into dry watercolor with the point of a knife or similar implement.
Applying almost dry, lighter color paint in a scrubbing motion on the canvas surface so as to allow previously applied darker color paint layers to show through.
Colors established by mixing two primary colors. Green, orange, and purple are all secondary colors.
Image made by the artist to represent himself.
In oil painting, a layer of color is scratched into with a point to reveal either another layer of color below or the white of the ground, thus making a linear pattern.
In painting, any area of the picture plane that is differentiated from other areas.
Something that refers to, stands for, or represents something else.
An artwork depicting one specific moment from a narrative.
A form of glue, traditionally made from animal skins, used for sealing canvas or unprimed board before an oil ground is put on.
An additive used to control the application properties of a color.
A painting depicting an arrangement of immobile objects, which may be organic or inorganic.
A characteristic approach to using materials, techniques, formal elements, and subject matter.
Anything that can be painted on or another word for a painting surface such as paper or canvas.
Symmetry (or Symmetrical Balance)
When the forms on the left and right halves of a composition are exact, or nearly exact, mirror images of each other.
An opaque paint that dries almost immediately, made by mixing powdered pigments with an egg solution in equal parts.
An object or surface that can be seen through with clarity.
Tromp I' oeil
lllusionistic painting that fools viewers into believing that they are seeing actual three-dimensional objects instead of their representation.
A point on the horizon line where a set of parallel lines or planes would seem to converge, if extended.
The basic ingredients used to make a work of art, including line, shape, color, value, texture, and space.
A device that allows only a limited view, used to analyze options for framing a painting subject.
The (real or imaginary) position including the distance, angle, and height - of the artist's view in relationship to the subject matter.
Transparent medium, the same as aquarelles, made with a mixture of pigments and gum arabic that is soluble in water.
A technique that consists primarily of subtracting paint to create an image.
Pure, intense color, unmixed with any black or white.
A highly fluid application of color.
A color that fades on exposure to light.
A highly fluid application of color.
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