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35 terms

Chapter 6: A History of Western Music

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Philippe de Vitry
developed idea of ars nova; student and teacher at University of Paris
Ars nova
french musical style started by Vitry characterized by mensural rhythm, use of duple and triple note divisions, smaller note values, syncopation
ars antiqua
"ancient art"; there was dispute among musicians about new vs old forms of music
mensuration signature
ancestors to time signatures; see p 118
tempus
smallest unit of musical time (beat)
prolation
division of semi-breves into minums
isorhythm
repetition in a voice part (usually the tenor) of an extended pattern of durations throughout a section or an entire composition
talea
repeated rhythmic pattern in tenor
color
repeated melodic pattern in tenor
Roman de Fauvel
allegorical narrative poem satirizing political and religious corruption; main character (horse) embodies seven deadly sins
formes fixes
3 main forms that characterize 14th century French music (ballade, rondeau, virelai)
ballade
consists of 3 stanzas; form of each stanza is aabC (aabC-aabC-aabC) with stanzas usually ending in open cadences except for the third and final one
virelai
3 stanzas; refrain uses same music as the last section of the stanza melody
(Abba-Abba-Abba-A)
rondeau
has only one stanza; first half of refrain returns midway through the piece between the a sections (AB a A ab AB)
double leading tone cadence
cadence popular in which the bottom voice moves down a whole tone and the upper voices move up a semitone
musica ficta
"feigned music;" notes outside the standard gamut
escape tone cadence (Landini cadence)
cadence in which tenor descends by a step, upper voice descends a step then jumps up a third
Guillaume de Machaut
leading composer of French Ars Nova; wrote Messe de Notre Dame (first surviving complete polyphonic ordinary setting of the mass)
Messe de Notre Dame
first surviving complete polyphonic ordinary setting of the mass; by Machaut
plainsong Mass
brought together chants which did not originally go together
contratenor
"against the tenor"; voice in same range as tenor
mannerism
...
ars subtilior
style of polyphony characterized by complexity in rhythm and notation; more intricate and chromatic than ars nova
trecento
name for thirteen hundreds in Italian; music accompanied all aspects of life; polyphony enters Italy as secular music
Squarcialupi Codex
contains 345 pieces by composers of the trecento; rich illustrations
Francesco Landini
leading composer of ballata; used the escape tone cadence a lot
madrigal
song for 2-3 voices without accompaniment; all voices sing same text; pastoral topics; consist of 2 or more three line stanzas followed by a ritornello
ritornello
last 2 lines of a madrigal
ballata
"to dance;"
form AbbaA
cantilena
polyphonic song not based on a cantus firmus
ripresa
refrain section of a ballata (AbbaA where A=ripresa)
piedi
First part of a stanza in a ballata
volta
second part of a stanza in a ballata
caccia, chace
"to hunt"; when a popular melody is set in strict canon to lively, graphically descriptive words; Tosto che l'alba
hocket
French "hiccup"; two voices alternate, one continuing melody while the other rests