neuro unit 3
Terms in this set (74)
The link between the brain and the pituitary is definitely hormonal, but how is the hypothalamus also involved in the connection between the brain and the pituitary?
The hypothalamus is highly involved in pituitary gland function. When it receives a signal from the nervous system, the hypothalamus secretes substances known as neurohormones that start and stop the secretion of pituitary hormones.
When your respiratory system starts acting up, what would be the result of the parasympathetic system and why?
your parasympathetic system would start to slow down because it needs to restore
what does the sympathetic nervous system deal with?
which neuromodulator are hallucinogens like LSD similar to?
A rat continues to press a lever that releases dopamine into his brain and continues to do so until he starves to death even though there is food in the corner of the container he remains in. why does he behave this way?
the rat wants the dopamine so his motivation to seek out the food is hindered
what is the main difference between liking and wanting???
liking- the pleasure of a stimulus
wanting- the motivation to seek out and receive a stimulus
what is the SRY gene
located on the Y chromosome and determines the location of developing testes
what neuromodulator influenced pair bonding in prairie voles? why don't montane voles pair bond?
oxytocin and vasopressin
bc of overexpression of vasopressin in the brain (page 593)
which of the following hormones act on the anterior pituitary?
the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers 1) physiological responses and 2) the subjective experience of emotion
the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli
dimentional expression of emotions
based on the idea that emotions, even basic emotions,
can be broken down into smaller fundamental elements combined
in different ways and differing amounts, just as all the elements of the
periodic table are made of protons, neutrons, and electrons (end of Inside Out)
basic emotion expression
an idea that seems a logical extension of Darwin's early observations on the universality of a small number of emotions commonly, these basic emotions are considered anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise (start of Inside Out)
what was learned from Phineas Gage?
personality and front part of brain are associated
what is the part of the brain that is responsible for personality and temperament?
what brain part is important for emotional memory, specifically fear?
what brain area is mainly associated with the production of predatory and affective aggression?
what are the two main types of aggression, and what regions of the hypothalamus are associated with the two types?
predatory-attacks for damage (lateral)
affective- attacks for show (medial)
what is Kluver-Bucy syndrome?
Damage to anterior temporal lobes, usually prominently affecting the amygdal
what brain part activates more when looking at fearful faces opposed to neutral faces?
lateral portion of the amygdala
what does EEG record?
electrical activity at the scalp
what is an EEG good at detecting timing?
what are the types of neural rhythms?
how are marine mammals able to sleep underwater without drowning?
they sleep one hemisphere at a time
When does dreaming occur?
During REM and non-REM sleep
name the fastest to slowest brain wave in order
active parts of the brain when dreaming
limbic cortex and extrastriate
name a neurotransmitter that triggers sleep?
which neurotransmitters are involved walking up?
serotonin, hypocretin, acetylcholine, norepinephrine
what happens when you dont have enough hypocretin?
serving the Corpus Callosum creates what type of brain disorder?
What makes language different from communication and what part of the brain is involved in each?
language- combination of words (phonetics)
communication- getting an idea or thought across
In a split-brain individual, if a visual stimuli is flashed to the LEFT hemifield.....
he not be able to identify what exactly is there but will be aware of its there
What could be the cause of someone having difficulty comprehending what someone said to them?
This area of the brain is specifically associated with language production.
How are Broca's Aphasia and Wernicke's Aphasia different?
Broca-trouble finding words but comprehension is good
Wernicke- poor comprehension
what is the Wada procedure evidence for?
it inhibits one hemisphere (numbs it) to test the other hemisphere with language and see what it can control
The main commissure that is cut during a split brain procedure to prevent the spread of epileptic damage.
There is a woman who can only say few syllables. She can say no more than four at a time. She can understand the basic processes that goes into speech, but she cannot fully execute a sentence. what does she have?
What is this disorder, which 5-10% of school-aged children worldwide have acquired, that can be noticed by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness?
This syndrome causes people to ignore people, objects, sounds, etc. on one side
Hemispatial neglect syndrome
What is the purpose of animal models?
it's not ethical to test on humans right away
Once stress is perceived, what hormone is released from the hypothalamus?
What is the pathway of the body's stress response?
hypothalamus, anterior pituitary gland, ACTH in bloodstream, adrenal gland releases cortisol
What is an effect of SSRIs
prolong the actions of released serotonin
at their receptors by inhibiting reuptake
what chemicals in the brain cause anxiety?
cortisol and norepinephrine
what is the difference between fear and anxiety?
ANXIETY- no real danger
how does the HPA axis work?
regulates cortisol in response to stress
what is the function of the HPA axis?
what would cause a result in schizophrenia? (neurotransmitters)
increase in dopamine can create positive symptoms
what neuromodulator has possible links with Alzheimer's disease?
how does modulatory signaling differ from sensory signalling?
modulatory--doesn't carry sensory info, preforms regulatory tasks on body
sensory-- sensory info
what are the effects of stimulating the sympathetic nervous system?
four Fs: flight, fright, fight, sex
what are the effects of stimulating the parasympathetic nervous system?
explain why recordings of dopamine cells suggest that they code for unexpected reward
unexpected= more excitement= increase dopamine
what is the substance that causes masculinization of the brain?
WHAT IS LOVE (bb dont hurt me)
hormones: oxytocin and vasopressin
what are two brain released sex hormones?
LH and FSH
what are 2 gonad released sex hormones?
testosterone and estrogen
what brain area underlines aggression?
what is the relationship between serotonin and aggressive behavior?
increase in serotonin→DECREASE in aggression
what does EEG record? why does neural synchrony matter?
the electro signals on the surface of the scalp. thats how its read.
explain the mechanism of the PING model
simple model of rhythm generation: why sleeping shows as waves
what are the 3 key differences between REM and non REM sleep?
REM- eye movement, EEG low voltage and high frequency, PARALYSIS
nonREM- not really eye movement, EEG high voltage and low frequency, SLEEPWALKING
how is language expressed?
verbally and written
why is language important?
how we communicate
what is language?
A system of symbols, sounds, meanings, and rules of combination that allows for communication among humans
what happens when you have too few hypocretin neurons or receptors?
what is attention?
The ability to select and focus on specific stimuli, whether internal or external.
what is consciousness?
an individual's awareness of external evens and internal sensations under a condition of arousal
What are some limitations of finding effective pharmacological treatments for psychiatric disorders?
unethical to test on humans
what are the different types of anxiety disorders?
agoraphobia, general anxiety, specific phobias, social phobia, panic attacks
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