Vascular Plants

Bio 202 Chapter 36
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Nonvascular plants
plants with leafless shoots, close to water, with waxy cuticles, few stomata, broad leaves
Rhizoids
root like structures at the base of the plant
Phylotaxy
leaf arrangement
Alternate leaf arrangement
1 leaf per node, weak sun and less shading
Opposite leaf arrangement
2 leaves per node, more shading for intense light
Whorled leaf arrangement
multiple leaves per node
Leaf area index
percent area covered by leaf surface area
Symplast
cytoplasm of all cells
Plasmodesma
channels between cells
Symplastic Route
transport route through cells
Transmembrane Route
cross plasma membrane channel, transport protein
Apoplast
outside plasma membrane
Apoplastic Route
transport route in extracellular space
Proton pump
moves high concentration of H+ outside against its gradient
Proton/sucrose co-transporter
one ion moves with gradient to bring another against gradient
Nitrate ions
co-transporter, common in routes
K+ channel
passive transport
Osmosis
movement of free water across membrane
Water Potential
determines direction of water flow due to solute concentration or applied pressure
Flaccid cell
membrane touches cell wall but doesn't push
Turgid cell
increased pressure, cell bulges
Plasmolysis
cell shrinks, plant wilts
Transpirational pull
water tension moving up xylem
Adhesion
attraction between water and other polar molecules
Cohesion
attraction between 2 water molecules
Xylem sap
made of water and some minerals
Transolcation
movement of products of photosynthesis
Phloem sap
made of sucrose, amino acids, and hormones