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3 Written questions

3 Multiple choice questions

  1. -when a person simultaneously holds 2 beliefs that are dissonant (logically inconsistent), the person will experience an aversive state of arousal
    -person will be highly motivated to REDUCE aversive arousal by making 2 beliefs more compatible
    -experiment: doing something boring for an hour, lying to next subject about level of fun, getting paid either $1 or $20
    -subjects getting paid $1 to lie justified deceptive behavior by changing their attitudes to be more in line with behavior
  2. -people make use of exactly the same attributional principles they use to understand OTHERS as to understand THEMSELVES
    -showed people who read that if "Bob Dowling" turned nobs for an hour for $1 and said he enjoyed, then he must have enjoyed it (used self-perception theory as alternate explanation for results of Festinger's cognitive dissonance experiment)
  3. tendency for people who are evaluating hypotheses to attempt to CONFIRM rather than to DISCONFIRM these hypotheses
    -Wason and colleagues (1971)

3 True/False questions

  1. Skinner's partial reinforcement effect-tendency for responses to be more resistant to extinction when they are reinforced inconsistently rather than uniformly

          

  2. Karl Popper and falsifiability-scientists should not only confirm or disconfirm their theories, they should seek out tests that could prove their theory wrong
    -Popper converted to school of thought called LOGICAL POSITIVISM (science/philosophy should be based on things that can be observed with absolute certainty & to test theories we should actively try to disprove them)

          

  3. E.C. Tolman and Clark Hull are famous forpopularizing idea of operationism, or operational definitions