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It is a term used to describe a follower of Jeremy Bentham, a radical philosopher that taught that public problems could be solved using a rational, scientific basis. (p.792)-- Edwin Chadwick (Health reformer--> sanitary idea)

Maismatic Theory

The belief that people contract diseases when they breathe in the bad odors of decay and putrefying excrement

Louis Pasteur

Created the Germ Theory (which brought the breakthrough idea that disease often came from bad drinking water; this weakened the maismatic theory); He also found that the activity of organisms could be suppressed by heating (beverages) --> Pasteurization

Joseph Lister

made the connection between aerial bacteria and the problem of wound infection; He created the idea of a chemical disinfectant (Antiseptic Principle) which resulted in sterilization

Napoleon III

above class conflict, wanted to provide employment, improve living conditions and testify to the power and glory of his empire.

Georges Haussmann

in charge of Paris; planner; transforming paris

Urban Planning

Changed paris from dark, narrow and crowded streets to straight, tree lined boulevards; boulevards were designed to be perfect to stop revolutionary crowds; free flow of traffic; sewers and aqueducts; improvements on public health b/c of better waste disposal; zoning laws; parks and buildings; electric streetcar; less congested

Middle Class

The group that most benefited from industrialization. Upper levels included factory owners, bankers, merchants who led aristocratic lives in country houses, obtained seats in parliament, sent their sons to oxford, and accepted titles of nobility. More numerous was the lower level including doctors, lawyers, scientists, journalists, teachers, engineers and other professionals. led to reform bill of 1832. (see book page 796)

Working Class

Many divisions within it (see book page 799)

Labor Aristocracy

The labor aristocracy contained the highly skilled workers. It made up about fifteen percent of the working class at the turn of the twentieth century. They developed a high lifestyle of stern morality. They considered themselves the leaders of the working class. And they had strong political and philosophical beliefs. (p.802)

Alternative Dress

Combining initially male attire with typical feminine elements
(ex: tie, suit, jacket, vest, straw hat WITH skirt, gloves)

Ready Made Clothes


Religious Revival

Church provided working poeple with solace and meaning; German Pietism, English Methodism, Protestant rejuvenation, Catholicism; decline in Church attendance and donation in English countries; most families however still baptized their kids and considered themself Christiains, more secular; less religious

Illegitimacy Explosion

1750-1850: rise in illegitimate births: 1 in 3 kids was out of wedlock; romantic ideals; premarital sex; reversed in the second half of the century

"My Secret Life"

Dark side of sex and class in urban society; sexual exploitation; sexism; written anon

Separate Spheres

Men and women were supposed to operate separately; mother is wife and homemaker and husband is wage-earner; gender division of labor; women are lacking many rights

Over crowding

cramming lots of people in a small space

Middle Class Feminists

Women had no legal rights; she might even belong to her husband; no identity, no property; few legal rights regarding property, divorce and custody of the kids; discrimination in education and employment; Women followed Mary Wollstonecraft and fought for equal rights for women, access to higher education and professional employment; paid work would relieve monotony that was womens' lives
English women --> full rights in 1882
professional and white collar employment
inspired by utopian and Marxian socialism
wanted liberation
became lawyers and doctors
Previously women:cared for home and kids, decided how to spend money, determined religious instruction and school, picked new furniture and apartment, raising the kids, sometimes made monetary contributions, pampered husbands

Gustave Droz

Mr., Mrs. and Baby
saw love within marriage as the key to human happiness
follow your heart
marry someone close in age
fathers should help mothers in child rearing

Feodor Dostoevski

The Brothers Karamazov
destructive elements of father son relationships
"Why doesn't wish his father dead"

Sigmund Freud

explosive dynamics of the family
particulary middle class
Freud treated mentally ill patients
hysteria --> people suppress strong feelings
Opedipal tensions resulting from the son's instinctive competition with the father for the mother's love and affection
Various mental devices --> defense mechanism
sexual energy which is repressed by rational and moral thinking


built on Newton's ideas
relationship between heat and mechanical energy
law of conservation of energy
applied to many fields
world has unchanging laws

Dmitri Mendeleev

periodic law
periodic table
divisions of chemistry (ex: organic chemistry--> the study of compounds of carbon)
using coal tar from coke ovens to create dyes for the fashion world

Systematic Research and Development

late 19th century
natural processes appeared to be determined by rigid laws
people were optimistic about human progress
careful experimentation
questions and hypothesis
thinkers tried to apply objective methods of science to study society even!

Auguste Comte

System of Positive Philosophy
utopian socialist (disciple of Saint-Simon)
knowledge has shifted from God, to nature to science
INTELLECTUAL PROGRESSION took place in many fields
Positivist Method: discipline of sociology that discovered laws of human relations even!
theological, metaphysical and scientific
fascinated with the idea of evolution and dynamic development


a process in which something passes by degrees to a different stage (especially a more advanced or mature stage)

Charles Lyell

discredited the long standing view that the earth's surface had been formed by short lived cataclysms such as biblical floods and earthquakes. He said that geological processes that are at work today slowly formed the earth's surface over a long period of time

Jean Baptiste Lamarck

all forms of life had arisen through a long process of continuous adjustment to the environment
believed that characteristics parents acquire during life could be passed on to kids (flaw)

Charles Darwin

On the Origins of Species by the Means of Natural Selection
biological evolution
chance differences among the members of a given species help some survive while others die
variations are gradually selected and gradually spread to the whole species through reproduction
Newton of Biology

Social Darwinists/ Social Darwinism

Applied Natural selection to humans
People like Herbert Spencer
Prosperous and strong people were chosen
This idea was especially popular with the Middle Class

Emile Zola

Germinal --> coal mining strike
realist --> literature movement
criticized porn and corruption of morals
she was one of the main advocates of realism (partially a creator even)


Literature should depict life exactly as it is
let the facts speak for themselves
expecially focused on taboo subjects

Honore de Balzac

The Human Comedy
panorama of postrevoultionary French life
nearly 100 book series
characters of french society
Darwinian struggle for wealth and power

Gustave Flaubert

Madame Bovary
outrage against public morality and religion
frustrated middle class house wife who has an affair and is betrayed by her lover

Mary Ann Evans

Known as George Eliot (pen name)
Middle March: A study of Provincial Life
Ways people are shaped by their social medium as well as inner strivings, conflicts and moral choices

Thomas Hardy

Tess of the D'Urbervilles
The Return of the Native
women and men who are frustrated and crushed by bad luck

Leo Tolstoy

War and Peace
Description and character development with atypical moralizing
Novel set against the historical background of Napoleon's invasion of Russia

Theodore Dreiser

Sister Carrie
Story of an ordinary farm girl who does well going wrong in Chicago; outraged conventional morality
book was withdrawn


prejudice against Jews


a Russian member of the left-wing majority group that followed Lenin and eventually became the Russian communist party


This was a legislative parliament in Russia with real political power; Created a constitution; universal male suffrage, the tzar had the absolute veto but the tsar eventually dismissed the duma, created a second and then dismissed that one too!

Bloody Sunday

Workers and Families met at Winter Palace in St. Petersberg to present a petition to the tsar
Led by Father Gapon
Singing God save the tsar
Nicolas II fled the city
troops opened fire
hundreds were killed and wounded

October Manifesto

A decree issued by the tsar that gave full civil rights to the duma (elected) with real legislative power

Revolution of 1905

result of discontent from Russian factory workers and peasants as well as an emerging nationalist sentiment
among the empires minorities.
Took Place in Manchuria

Giuseppe Mazzini

radical patriot
wanted to unify Italy through:
central democratic republic
universal male sufferage
will of the people

Pope Pius IX

didn't want a Unified Italy
said that unification had given way to fear and hostility after he was temporarily driven from Rome
wrote "Syllabus of Errors"
(papacy stood up to modern trends)
denounced: rationalism, socialism, seperation of church and state..... etc.

Victor Emmanuel

Sardinia's monarch
retained the liberal constitution
provided civil liberties and real parliamentary government with deputies elected by a limited franchise based on income
liberal, progressive state with an achievable goal

Giuseppe Garibaldi

superpatriot; romantic, revolutionary nationalism and republicanism
independent Italian force in politics
Secretly and not really supported by Cavour, he led the Red Shirts
won Palermo and marched to Naples but was intercepted by Cavour's own troops

Red Shirts

followers of Giuseppe Garibaldi
guerrilla band


German customs union
founded to stimulate trade and increase the revenues of member states
tariff duties were reduced so that Austria's highly protected industry couldn't bear to join
excluded Austria
to the Austro Prussian rivalry
Austria tried to destroy it,but failed

Camillo Cavour

statesman (prime minister)
alliance between aristocracy and the solid middle class under a strong nation state
prosperous middle class
fortune in buisness
wanted to unify Italy under Victor Emmanuel
Wanted Sardinia's support
national goals were realistic

Otto Von Bismark

desire for power
rule without parliamentary consent
collecting taxes
reorganized the army
knew that war with Austria would create an alliance against Prussia but he skillfully neutralized Russia and France and began a war of his own making: AUSTRO-PRUSSIAN WAR
railroads and needle gun
Germany beat austria at Battle of Sadowa in Bohemia and Austria agreed to withdraw from German affairs
unified Germany
chancellor of Germany/Prussia
Under william I
William II fired him, thinking he himself could do better, but he could not

Crimean War

Russian dispute with France over who should protect certain Christian shrines in the Ottoman empire, brought crisis,
russia had bad transportation and were defeated humiliatingly

Alexander II

told serf owners it would be better if reform came from above
rapid social change and modernization b/c of military disaster
freed the serfs--> had to pay a lot to live though, but at least they were free
education and policies toward Jews were liberalized
censorship was relaxed
private railway companies
stronger military and territorial expansion


three class system of towns, peasant villages and noble landowners
executive local council dealt with local problems
local assembly
hoped it would lead to an elected parliament but it didnt

Alexander III

reactionary: tsar after Alexander II


lower house of parliament
popularly elected
legislation for economic and legal unification


Bismarck's attack on the catholic church
struggle for civilization
only in Protestant Prussia did it have any success at all
Bismark abandoned it
Bismark entered into an alliance with the Catholic center
uneasy but mutually advantageous
economic reasons


feudal system, the use of serfs to work the land in return for protection against barbarian invasions

William II

forced Bismark to resign
no more successful than Bismark at getting workers to denounce socialism
Social Democrats were elected to the Reichstag (largest single party)
patriotic tone
less and less radical


Advocates of a Russian constitutional democracy. This was attained in 1905. They made up most of the first Duma but were eventually declared illegal when the Bolsheviks took power. Looked to the British as a model


Muslims who attacked Europe and converted to Christianity and established Hungary


a Russian member of the liberal minority group that advocated gradual reform and opposed the Bolsheviks before and during the Russian Revolution


Village commune where the emancipated serfs lived and worked collectively in order to meet redemption payments to the government.


the doctrine that nations should act independently (rather than collectively) to attain their goals; love of one's nation


a revolutionary doctrine that advocates destruction of the social system for its own sake; complete denial of all established authority and institutions

Alfred Dreyfus

The Dreyfus Affair:
Jewish man, falsely accused and convicted of treason
written about by Zola
split France
anti-Semites and Catholics vs Civil libertarians
he was declared innocent
government severed all ties between the state and the Catholic church

William Gladstone

liberal prime minister
mission is to pacify Ireland
bills to give Ireland a self gov --> falied to pass
Irish nationalists in the British parliament saw their chance: supported liberals in battle for people's budget and recieved home rule bill for ireland

Franz Joseph

centralize the state
dual monarchy but it was divided in two
emperor of Austria and king of Hungary EX. was defeated by Napoleon III at the battle of Magenta (1830-1916)

Pan Slavism

A movement to promote the independence of Slav people. Roughly started with the Congress in Prague; supported by Russia. Led to the Russo-Turkish War of 1877.


an organized, often officially encouraged massacre or persecution of a minority group, especially one conducted against Jews, often used to redirect public anger from the government


politics based on practical rather than moral or ideological considerations


Russian intellectuals in the early nineteenth century who favored resisting western European influences and taking pride in the traditional peasant values and institutions of the Slavic People.

social democrats

The largest political party in Sweden, who pushed for social reform legislation, and drew support from community and socialist and capitalist working together.


an elected governmental council in a Communist country (especially one that is a member of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics)

Syllabus of Errors

Pope Pius IX denounced rationalism, socialism, and separation of church and state. (A document by the pope in which he denounced rationalism, socialism, religious liberty, and separation of the church and state.)

Charles Albert

King of Piedmont who was defeated twice by Austria, then abdicated in favor of son Victor Emmanuel II. (king of Piedmont-Sardinia who originally tried to unify but was crushed by Austria and replaced by his son)

George Boulanger

1889, inadvertently strengthened the republic by trying to oppose it. French general.

G.W. Hegel

German nationalist philosopher who developed the dialectical system which viewed history as a "Thesis + Antithesis = Synthesis" process; believed the state was the embodiment of reason and liberty

Karl Luegar

mayor of Vienna who embraces Anti-Semitic policies that influence Hitler


French viceroy appointed by Napoleon III of France to lead the new government set up in Mexico. After the Civil War, the U.S. invaded and he was executed, a demonstration of the enforcement of the Monroe Doctrine to European powers.

Louis Napoleon III

elected to French govt in Dec 1848-ppls desire for tough ruler for protection; pamphlets on elimination of poverty; govt. should represent people-help ppl economically-disassembled National Assembly-voted for presidency of 10 yrs-voted to make him hereditary emperor

Nicholas I

(1825-1855) Russian Tsar that succeeced Alexander; he strengthened the secret police and the bureaucracy. He was also wiling to use Russian troops to crush revolutions, as he greatly feared them. czar of Russia from 1825 to 1855 who led Russia into the Crimean War (1796-1855)

Nicholas II

the last czar of Russia who was forced to abdicate in 1917 by the Russian Revolution EX. he and his family were executed by the Bolsheviks (1868-1918)

Heinrich von Treitscke

o "The Jews are our misfortune"
o Says they are evil capitalists

Max Weber

German sociologist that regarded the development of rational social orders as humanity's greatest achievement. German sociologist and pioneer of the analytic method in sociology (1864-1920)

Frederick WIlliam IV

king of Prussia who violently suppressed democratic movements (1795-1865)

Credit Mobilier

a joint-stock company organized in 1863 and reorganized in 1867 to build the Union Pacific Railroad. It was involved in a scandal in 1872 in which high government officials were accused of accepting bribes.

Dual Monarchy

The joining of Austria and Hungary under two different crowns

Franco-Prussian War

1870-71, war between France and Prussia; seen as German victory; seen as a struggle of Darwinism; led to Prussia being the most powerful European nation. Instigated by Bismarck; France seen as the aggressor. Treaty of Paris= harsh conditions on the French.

Frankfurt Assembly

1807-82; personified the romantic revolutionary nationalism. Attempted to unify Germany., German Parliament met in Frankfurt to fulfill a liberal and nationalist dream: the preparation of a constitution for a united Germany, May 1848 to May 1849.

*Sat in Frankfurt on Main River. Trying to bring about a unified Germany with liberal constitution, civil rights, free elections, parliamentary debate, etc. FAILED - big impact on modern times that it did not succeed. The Frankfurt Assembly had its potential to begin with because the collapse of existing govts during the March Days of 1848. Problems were surrendering sovereignty of individual parts and then also the tension between Prussia and Austria. The goal was liberal, self-governing and federally unified Germany that would be democratic but NOT equalitarian/socialist.

German Confederation

consisted of 38 sovereign states recognized by the Vienna settlement, and was dominated by Austria and Prussia (b/c of their size); the confederation had little power and needed the consent of all 38 states to take action.

Paris Commune

The small government in Paris who wanted to resist the conservative leaders of France and tried to form their own government; Established by a group of French radical patriots who refused to give up in the Franco-Prussian War, and wanted to independantly rule Paris. Didn't want to give up Alsace-Lorraine. Nation Assembly under Thiers ordered French army to crush commune, 20,000 ppl died.

Second Empire

the imperial government of Napoleon III in France from 1852-1870

Third Republic

French Republic started after the end of the Franco-Prussian War, which led to the demise of Napolean III, and survived until the invasion of the German third Reich. It was the longest regime from after the French Revolution.

Woman's Suffrage Act; 1928

give women the vote on the same terms as men


Dutch settlers in south Africa


The movement of supporters of the People's Charter (drawn up in Britian in 1838), which sought to transform Britain into a democracy and demanded universal suffrage for men, vote by secret ballot, equal electoral districts, annual elections, and the elimination of property qualifications for and the payment of stipends to members of Parliament.


one of the self-governing nations in the British Commonwealth


Members of a late nineteenth-century socialist movement in Britain who advocated gradual reform rather than revolutions and supported the Labour party.


A secret society formed to work to free Ireland from British rule also known as the Irish Republican Brotherhood

Gunboat Diplomacy

diplomacy in which the nations threaten to use force in order to obtain their objectives -- Japan

Home Rule

self-government in local matters by a city or county that is part of a national government


(means: prince in Egypt) Ismail Ali, prince of Egypt from 1863- 1879 who westernized Egypt through modernizing his nation through projects like the Suez Canal. Eventually bankrupting his country and allowed the French and British to take control of many aspects of Egyptian society such as the state budget.

Labour Party

a political party formed in Great Britain in 1900 EX. characterized by the promotion of labor's interests and the socialization of key industries


In Sufi belief system, a promise deliverer; also a name given to Muhammad Achmad, leader of late 19th century revolt against Egyptians and British in the Sudan

New Imperialism

Historians' term for the late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century wave of conquests by European powers, the United States, and Japan, which were followed by the development and exploitation of the newly conquered territories. (p. 726)

Open Door Policy

A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.

Pax Britannica

"British Peace," a century-long period beginning with Napoleon's defeat at waterloo in 1815 and ending with the outbreak of World War I in 1914 during which Britain's economic and diplomatic influence contributed to economic openness and relative peace

Post Modern

relating to art, architecture, and literature it reintroduces classical or traditional elements of style or taking modern styles to the extreme

Sphere of Influence

the geographical area in which one nation is very influential


The Tories were colonists who disagreed with the move for independence and did not support the Revolution. Loyalists. (FRANCE)


The Whigs were originally colonists supporting independence. In the mid 1830s, the Whig Party opposed Jackson's strong-armed leadership style and policies. The Whigs promoted protective tariffs, federal funding for internal improvements, and other measures that strengthened the central government. Reaching its height of popularity in the 1830s, the Whigs disappeared from the national political scene by the 1850s. (FRANCE)


someone who believes that the value of a thing depends on its utility (function) --practical


A native African group who fought with the Boers for control of the land were herders and agriculturists moved into southern Africa. (resisted)

Thomas Arnold

13 June 1795 - 12 June 1842) was a British educator and historian. Arnold was an early supporter of the Broad Church Anglican movement. He was headmaster of Rugby School from 1828 to 1841, where he introduced a number of reforms.

Joseph Chamberlain

a British statesman who sought to tie the various dominions of the Commonwealth of Nations (British Empire) through economic means. He advocated that the dominions such as Canada, New Zealand, and Australia should receive full autonomy, and therefore they would be more willing to integrate economically with Great Britain. He also advocated tariffs favoring goods from British dominions. His ideas generally factored into British imperialist policies after the end of WWI.

Mohandas Gandhi

A philosopher from India, this man was a spiritual and moral leader favoring India's independence from Great Britain. He practiced passive resistance, civil disobedience and boycotts to generate social and political change.

David Lloyd George

He was the British representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points.(prime minister) british man whos goal was to reduce military threat, keep together as a trade partner. british prime minister. promised to build a postwar bitain "fit for heros"

George Gordon

Lord Byron, greatest british poet. "If it feels good, do it".
Was an important British Romantic poet. His works include "She walks in Beauty" and the unfinished "Don Juan." Many consider him to embody the spirit of Romanticism. He died from an illness contracted while in Greece, where he was supporting their independence movement.

John Hobson

English Economist
influenced lenin and others
rush to acquire colonies was due to the economic needs of unregulated capitalism; they need to put surplus somewhere
imperial possessions didnt pay off economically
quest for empire diverted popular attention away from domestic reform and the need to reduce the great gap
endless process and only gave temporary solutions to long term problems
between rich and poor

Leander Jameson

Was a Doctor, ordered to kill Paul Kruger. Did not succed, so he was sentenced to jail time. Plan was called The Jameson Raid. A drug addict

Rudyard Kipling

the white man's burden
British writer who wrote of "the white man's burden" and justified imperialism

Lord Kitchner

In 1896 and 1989, he undertook the reconquest of Sudan for Britain. Then, Egypt and Britain had joint rule over the land, which meant Britain primarily.

Leopold II

Belgian king who ruthlessly exploited the natives on his African land for personal gain.. Congo declared his personal property during Berlin Conference

Daniel O Connell

(1775-1847) Irish advocate for the Penal Laws against Catholics. Tried to repeal the Act of Union of 1800, which linked Britain and Ireland legislatively. He was elected to Parliament for the passage of the 1829 Catholic Emancipation Act which declared Catholics were eligible for public office.

Charles Parnell

irish nationalist, 1870's, wanted home-rule

Robert Peel

Tory prime minister joined with Whigs and a minority of his own party to repeal Corn Laws in 1846 and allow free imports of grain

Victoria Regina

monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

Cecil Rhodes

Born in 1853, played a major political and economic role in colonial South Africa. He was a financier, statesman, and empire builder with a philosophy of mystical imperialism.
led british troops
conquered white rivals in boer war
terrorists were united with the old Cape Colony

Beatrice Webb

1858-1943 - British Fabian socialist who noted that the scientists were becoming ever more prominent in daily life as the leaders of society

Boer War

either of two wars: the first when the Boers fought England in order to regain the independence they had given up to obtain British help against the Zulus (1880-1881);
Lasting from 1899 to 1902, Dutch colonists and the British competed for control of territory in South Africa.

Durham Report

as a direct result of report submitted to parliament by lord durham in 1839, parliament granted canada self-government in 1848.


Fashoda was located in Sudan which is in the middle of Africa. France wanted control of western Africa and Britain wanted control of eastern Africa. France backed off to avoid conflict. They ended up settling this issue diplomatically and each country got a fair share.

Irish Home Rule Bills

this said that Ireland would rule itself but it was postponed until after the WWI and the Irish got impatient with the British

New Poor Law 1834

poor relief law introduced to deal with negative impact of the Industrial revolution, poor had to enter a workhouse to receive relief, conditions in workhouses were intentionally worse than the outside, symbolized the lack of support for the poor

Opium War

War between Britain and the Qing Empire that was, in the British view, occasioned by the Qing government's refusal to permit the importation of opium into its territories. The victorious British imposed the one-sided Treaty of Nanking on China. (p. 684)

Parliament Act, 1911

Legislation that deprived the House of Lords of veto power in all money matters. (realistically curtails the power of the House of Lords).

Potato Famine

This was the famine that occurred in Ireland that killed of thousands of people because the main potato crop could not grow because of bad soil that year 1840s

Reform Bill, 1832

gave representation in parliament to growing towns, eliminated "rotten boroughs", suffrage to men who owned property; Legislation passed in Great Britain that extended the vote to most members of the middle class; failed to produce democracy in Britain.

Reform Bill, 1867

passed by Conservatives. Suffrage to working class men

Sepoy Rebellion

The revolt of Indian soldiers in 1857 against certain practices that violated religious customs; also known as the Sepoy Mutiny.

Six Acts, 1819

England (i think). Caused by the Peterloo Massacre.1. Forbade large unauthorized public meetings, 2. Raised the fines for seditious libel, 3. Sped up the trials for political agitators, 4. Increased newspaper taxes, 5. Prohibited the training of armed groups, 6. Allowed local officials to search homes in certain disturbed counties.
prohibited the training of armed groups

Ten Hours Act, 1847

Limited labor of women and children in all industrial establishments to 10 hours per day. Thereafter work of men seemed to limit to same. The liberal Quaker, John Bright, criticized the act because he believed in laissez-faire and saw act as "a delusion practised on the working class."

Suez Canal

a ship canal in northeastern Egypt linking the Red Sea with the Mediterranean Sea; shortened the sea voyage between Europe and Asia. Its strategic importance led to the British conquest of Egypt in 1882

Union Act, 1840

It abolished the legislatures of Lower Canada and Upper Canada and established a new political entity, the Province of Canada to replace them. This act effected the political union of The Canadas, and was similar in nature and in goals to the other Acts of Union enacted by the British Parliament.

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