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Chapter 19 Lesson 1
Chapter 19: Renaissance and the Reformation Lesson 3: The Reformation of Christianity
Terms in this set (34)
How did Renaissance ideas cause Europeans to view their lives?
By the early 1500s Renaissance ideas had caused many Europeans to view their lives with a more critical eye.
What are did some people think needed improvement?
One area that some people thought needed improvement was religion.
What happened by the late Renaissance?
By the late Renaissance some people had begun to complain about problems in the Catholic Church. They called on its leaders to end corruption and focus on religion.
Define the Protestant Reformation.
Their calls led to the Reformation , a reform movement against the Roman Catholic Church.
What 3 Complaints did reformers have against the Catholic Church?
Those who wanted to reform the church had many complaints. Some thought that priests and bishops weren't religious anymore. Others felt that the pope was too involved in politics, neglecting his religious duties. Many thought the church had grown too rich.
How was the Roman Catholic Church one of the richest institutions in Europe?
The Roman Catholic Church had become one of the richest institutions in Europe because it didn't have to pay taxes. They charged taxes.
What is an indulgence?
An indulgence was a document given by the pope that excused a person from penalties for the sins that he or she had committed.
Explain the Catholic concept of purgatory.
In Catholic teachings, purgatory was a place where souls went to make up for their sins before they went to heaven.
Why did some people think that it was wrong to sell indulgences?
Many Christians thought that by selling indulgences, the church was letting people buy their way into heaven. The Catholic church made a lot of money from the selling of indulgences.
What happened October 31st, 1517?
On October 31, 1517, a priest named Martin Luther added his voice to the call for reform. He nailed a list of complaints about the church to the door of a church in Wittenberg in the Germany.
What were the 95 theses?
The 95 theses was a document Martin Luther nailed to a church door. It was a list of complaints against the Catholic Church.
How did the printing press help spread Luther's ideas?
Thanks to the newly invented printing press, copies of this list spread to neighboring states.
How did Pope Leo X react to Luther's complaints?
Pope Leo X called Luther a heretic and excommunicated him.
How did the Holy Roman Emperor react to Luther's complaints?
The emperor called Luther an outlaw and ordered him to leave the empire.
What is a diet?
A council of church officials and nobles in the City of Worms.
What did Luther's ideas eventually lead to?
Luther's ideas eventually led to a split in the church.
What are Protestants?
Those who protested against the Roman Catholic church became known as Protestants
What are people called who specifically followed Luther's teachings?
Those Protestants who followed Luther's teachings were specifically known as Lutherans.
What did Luther teach? What is this idea called?
Luther taught that anyone could have a direct relationship with God. They didn't need priests to talk to God for them. This idea is called the priesthood of all believers.
How did Luther encourage people to live?
Luther encouraged people to live as the Bible, not priests or the pope, said.
What did Luther do to help people understand how God wanted them to live? What impact did this have?
To help people understand how God wanted them to live, Luther translated the Bible's New Testament into German, his native language. For the first time many Europeans who didn't know Greek or Latin could read the Bible for themselves. In addition to translating the Bible, Luther wrote pamphlets, essays, and songs about his ideas, many of them in German.
Why did German nobles like Luther's ideas? What did this lead to in Germany?
Many German nobles liked Luther's ideas. They particularly supported Luther's position that the clergy should not interfere with politics. Because these nobles allowed the people who lived on their lands to become Lutheran, the Lutheran Church soon became the dominant church in most of northern Germany.
How did Luther depart from the church's teachings?
He married a nun.
When did Martin Luther die?
Martin Luther died in 1546.
Who was William Tyndale and what did he believe? How did this belief go against the teachings of the Catholic Church?
William Tyndale , an English professor, thought that everyone should be able to read and interpret the Bible. This belief went against the teachings of the Catholic Church, which held that only the clergy could interpret the Bible.
What did Tyndale do that caused him to be executed.
When Tyndale translated the Bible into English, Catholic authorities had him executed.
Explain John Calvin's teaching of predestination. What else did Calvin believe?
A more influential reformer than Tyndale was John Calvin. One of Calvin's main teachings was predestination, the idea that God knew who would be saved even before they were born. Nothing people did during their lives would change God's plan. However, Calvin also thought that it was important to live a good life and obey God's laws.
What happened in Geneva, Switzerland in 1541?
In 1541 the people of Geneva, Switzerland, made Calvin their religious and political leader.
What did Calvin and his followers do in order to make Geneva an example of a good Christian city?
He and his followers, called Calvinists, passed laws to make people live according to Calvin's teachings. Calvin hoped to make Geneva an example of a good Christian city.
Who was the major figure of the Reformation in England?
King Henry VIII
What did Henry ask the Pope for? What did he do when the pope refused?
Henry asked the pope to officially end his marriage, but the pope refused. Furious, Henry decided that he was not going to obey the pope anymore.
What happened in 1534?
In 1534 he declared himself the head of a new church, called the Church of England, or Anglican Church.
Why didn't Henry change many church practices?
Henry broke from the Catholic Church for personal reasons, not religious ones. As a result, he didn't change many church practices.
What did Henry's actions open the door for?
Henry's actions opened the doors for other protestant beliefs to take hold in England.
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