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46 terms

Linux 3060 chapter - 7

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/boot/grub/grub.conf
The GRUB configuration file in most Linux distributions.

/boot/grub/menu.lst
The GRUB configuration file in SLES.

/etc/default/passwd
A file that contains default values used when changing passwords such as encryption algorithm.

/etc/default/useradd
A file that contains default values used when creating user accounts.

/etc/fstab
A file used to store information used to mount filesystems.

/etc/group
The file that contains system groups and their members.

/etc/grub.conf
The file that contains information about GRUB components.

/etc/gshadow
A file that is typically used on older Linux computers. It can contain encrypted group passwords.

/etc/lilo.conf
The LILO configuration file.

/etc/login.defs
A file that contains default values used when creating user accounts.

/etc/mtab
A file that lists currently mounted filesystems.

/etc/passwd
The file that contains user account information such as name, UID, primary group, home directory, and shell.

/etc/security/limits.conf
A file that lists user resource limits.

/etc/shadow
The file that typically contains encrypted passwords and password expiry information for user accounts on the system.

/etc/shells
A file that lists valid system shells such as /bin/bash.

/etc/skel
A directory that contains files and directories that are copied to all new users' home directories when they are created.

allocation groups
Sections of a block within an XFS filesystem.

aquota.group
A file that stores group quota information for a filesystem.

aquota.user
A file that stores user quota information for a filesystem.

B+ tree
A structure used to organize files on a filesystem for fast access.

block
The unit of data commonly used by a filesystem.

boot loader
See boot manager.

boot manager
The program used to load and start the operating system kernel at system startup.

chgrp (change group) command
Used to change the group owner of a file or directory.

chkconfig command
Used to set the startup status of a service in Linux.

chmod (change mode) command
Used to change the mode (permissions) of a file or directory.

chown (change owner) command
Used to change the owner and group owner of a file or directory.

dumpe2fs command
Used to obtain filesystem information from Ext2 and Ext3 filesystems.

edquota command
Used to specify quota limits for users and groups.

Ext2
The traditional filesystem used on older Linux systems.

Ext3
A journaling version of the Ext2 filesystem.

fdisk command
Used to create, delete, and modify hard disk partitions.

filesystem
A structure used to organize blocks on a device such that they can be used by the operating system to store data.

fsck command
Used to check and repair filesystems.

fuser command
Used to identify users and processes using a particular file or directory.

grace period
The amount of time a user can exceed a quota limit.

Grand Unified Boot Loader (GRUB)
The default boot manager in SLES.

group
When referring to a long file or directory listing, it represents the group ownership of a file or directory.

Group Identifier (GID)
A number that uniquely identifies system groups.

groupadd command
Used to add a group to the system.

groupdel command
Used to delete a group from the system.

groupmod command
Used to modify the name, membership, or GID of a group on the system.

hard limit
A quota limit that cannot be exceeded.

inode
The section of a file or directory that stores all information about it except the filename.

JFS
A journaling filesystem that supports large filesystem sizes.

journaling
A filesystem feature that records all filesystem transactions in a small transaction log on the filesystem for tracking and troubleshooting purposes.

lilo command
Used to reinstall the LILO boot manager after configuration changes.

Linux Loader (LILO)
The traditional boot manager used on Linux systems. The 64-bit version of this boot loader is called ELILO.

make command
Used to compile source code into programs according to a makefile.

make install command
Used to copy a compiled program to the correct location on the filesystem.

makefile
A file created by a configuration script that contains settings used when compiling source code.

metadata
The section of a filesystem that is not used to store user data.

mkfs command
Used to create most filesystems in Linux.

mkpasswd command
Used to create an encrypted password string.

mkreiserfs command
Used to create ReiserFS filesystems.

mount command
Used to mount filesystems on devices to mount point directories.

mount point
A directory to which a device is mounted.

other
When referring to a long file or directory listing, it represents all users on the Linux system that are not the owner or a member of the group on the file or directory.

owner
The user whose name appears in a long listing of a file or directory and who typically has the most permissions to that file or directory.

partition
A physical division of a hard disk drive.

passwd command
Used to modify user passwords and expiry information as well as lock and unlock user accounts.

Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM)
A set of components that allow programs to access user account information.

primary group
The group specified for a user in the /etc/passwd file that becomes the group owner on newly created files and directories.

pwck command
Used to check the validity of the /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow files.

pwconv command
Used to enable the use of the /etc/shadow file.

pwunconv command
Used to disable the use of the /etc/shadow file.

quotacheck command
Used to update the quota database files.

quotaoff command
Used to deactivate disk quotas.

quotaon command
Used to activate disk quotas.

quotas
Filesystem usage limits that may be imposed upon users and groups.

Red Hat Package Manager (RPM)
A format used to distribute software packages on most Linux systems.

ReiserFS
A journaling filesystem that uses B+ tree structures and has fast data access.

reiserfsck command
Used to check and repair ReiserFS filesystems.

repquota command
Used to produce a report on quotas for a particular filesystem.

rpm command
Used to install, remove, and find information on RPM software packages.

Set Group ID (SGID)
A special permission set on executable files and directories. When you run an executable program that has the SUID permission set, you become the group owner of the executable file for the duration of the program. On a directory, the SGID sets the group that gets attached to newly created files.

Set User ID (SUID)
A special permission set on executable files. When you run an executable program that has the SUID permission set, you become the owner of the executable file for the duration of the program.

soft limit
A quota limit that can be exceeded for a certain period of time.

Sticky bit
A special permission that is set on directories that prevents users from removing files that they do not own.

superblock
The section of a filesystem that stores the filesystem structure.

ulimit command
Used to set resource limits for user accounts.

umask
A system variable that sets permissions for newly created files.

umask command
Used to view and change the system umask.

umount command
Used to unmount a device from a mount point directory.

user
When referring to a long file or directory listing, it represents the owner of that file or directory.

User Identifier (UID)
A number that uniquely identifies each system user account.

useradd command
Used to add a user account to the system.

userdel command
Used to remove a user account from the system.

usermod command
Used to modify the properties of a user account on the system.

VFAT
A Linux version of the Microsoft FAT filesystem.

XFS
A journaling filesystem that uses allocation groups to manage data.