70 terms

Middle Ages people

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Peter Abelard
French scholastic philosopher. Created Sic et Non.
Hildegard of Bingen
Mystic and musician who founded a Benedictine convent in 1147.
Clovis
Leader of the Franks who led his warriors against another Germanic army in 496. United the Franks into one kingdom by 511.
St. Benedict
Italian monk who wrote a book around 520 describing a strict yet practical set of rules for monasteries.
Charles Martel
Mayor of palace in 719 who held more power then king; defeated Muslim raiders from Spain at the Battle of Tours in 732.
Carolingians
Family that ruled the Franks from 751 to 987.
Charlemagne
"Charles the Great". He spread Christianity, and traveled to Rome in 800 to crush the mob who attacked the pope. In return, the pope crowned him emperor. Limited the authority of nobles, and encouraged learning.
Louis the Pious
Charlemagne's son. Devoutly religious man but ineffective ruler.
Charles the Bald
Charlemagne's son. Fought for control over the empire with two other brothers and signed the Treaty of Verdun in 843.
Louis the German
Another one of Charlemagne's son, who also signed the Treaty of Verdun which split the empire into three kingdoms.
Leif Ericson
Viking explorer who reached North America around 1000 almost 500 years before Columbus.
Otto I
"Otto the Great." Crowned king in 936. Formed close alliance with Church. In 962, the pope crowned him emperor as Charlemagne had been.
Pope Gregory VII
Banned lay investors in 1075. Excommunicated Henry IV.
Henry IV
Furious with Gregory VII for banning lay investiture and then was excommunicated by him. In 1077, went to visit Gregory and got his excommunication lifted, but they still continued to quarrel.
Frederick I
Nicknamed Barbarossa for his red beard. German king. First ruler to call his lands the Holy Roman Empire. Fought the pope's league in 1176 but made peace in 1177.
St. Frances of Assisi
An Italian who founded the order of the Friars, Franciscans.
Clare
Woman who founded the Franciscan order for women in 1212 with Francis of Assisi.
Pope Urban II
Read letter from Alexius Comnenus and then called for a "holy war". (The First Crusade).
Alexius Comnenus
Byzantine emperor who sent an appeal to Robert, Count of Flanders, asking for help against the Muslim Turks.
Saladin
Muslim leader who captured Jerusalem.
Richard the Lion-Hearted
Attempted to regain the Holy Land from Saladin and after many battles, they had a truce in 1192, but Jerusalem stayed under Muslim control. But Saladin promised that Christian pilgrims could visit the city's holy places.
Philip II
Was going to help regain the Holy Land from Saladin but fought with Richard and went home.
Ferdinand of Aragon
Spanish monarch. Husband to Isabella.
Isabella of Castille
Spanish monarch. Wife of Ferdinand.
Dante Alighieri
Wrote The Divine Comedy.
Geoffrey Chaucer
Wrote The Canterbury Tales.
Thomas Aquinas
Scholar who argued that the most basic religious truths could be proved by logical argument. He wrote Summa Theologicae.
Canute
Danish king who in 1016 conquered England, molding the Anglo-Saxons and Vikings into one people.
Alfred the Great
Anglo-Saxon king from 871-899, and managed to turn back the Viking invaders.
William the Conquerer
Duke of Normandy who invaded England and was Harold Godwinson's rival. Won when he fought him. Declared all of England his personal property.
Henry II
Married Eleanor of Aquitaine from France. Brought larger territory for him in France called Aquitaine. Strengthened royal courts of justice.
John I
Son of Henry II, ruled from 1199 to 1216 and was a failed military leader. Signed Magna Carta.
Edward I
In 1295, he summoned two burgesses from every borough and two Knights from ever county to serve as parliament at Westminster in London.
Hugh Capet
Undistinguished duke from the middle of France, began the Capetian dynasty of French kings from 987 to 1328.
Philip II (Philip Augustus)
Ruled from 1180 to 1223, one of the most powerful Capetian rulers, seized Normandy from John in 1204, established royal officials called bailiffs.
Louis IX
Ruled 1226 to 1270. Pious and saintly. Made a saint by the Catholic Church after death, he also created a French appeals court.
Philip IV
"Philip the Fair." Involved in a quarrel with the pope, crated the Third Estate, and held a meeting called the Estates-General.
Pope Boniface VIII
Attempted to enforce papal authority on kings and was held prisoner by Philip in 1303. Only a month after release he died.
Pope Gregory XI
Died while visiting Rome in 1378.
Pope Urban VI
Cardinals chose him as pope. Italian.
Martin V
Chosen by council in 1417 as new pope.
John Wycliffe
Englishman who preached that Jesus Christ, not the pope, was the true head of the Church.
Jan Hus
Professor in Bohemia that taught that the authority of the Bible was higher then the pope. He was excommunicated in 1412 and then burned at the stake in 1415.
Edward III
Claimed the right to the French throne from 1337 to 1453, launched the Hundred Years War.
Joan of Arc
French peasant girl who said she felt moved by God to rescue France from its English conquerors. In 1429, she led the French army into battle, and then was tried for heresy and burned at the stake in 1431.
St. Augustine
Influenced the development of Western Christianity.
Charles IV
First Bohemian king to become Holy Roman Emperor, Prague was the Capitol during his reign.
Pope Clement VII
Born in Florence, pope from 1523 to 1534.
St. Dominic
Spanish priest and founder of the Dominican order.
Eleanor of Aquintaine
Queen of England and mother of Richard the Lion-Hearted.
Henry V
Second English monarch who came from the House of Lancaster. Conflicted with Henry IV.
Habsburg
Austrian dynasty, dynastic capital was Vienna, except from 1583 to 1611.
Henry III
King of Germany and emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
St. Patrick
Was a 5th-century Romano-British Christian missionary and bishop in Ireland. Spread Christianity to Ireland.
Richard III
Last king of the House of York, only ruled for two years.
Edward the Confessor
One of the last Anglo-Saxon Kings.
Pope Innocent III
One of the most influential popes; organized the Fourth Crusade.
Merovingians
Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks for nearly 300 years.
Pepin II
King of the Franks, defeated the Lombards, takes their land to pope which is the donation of Pepin and creates Papal States.
Henry I
Was King of England from 1100 to 1135.
Henry VII
King of England and Lord of Ireland; the first monarch of the House of Tudor.
William Langland
Conjectured author of the 14th-century English dream-vision Piers Plowman.
Moors
Muslim people from Spain.
Charles VII
Was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1422 to his death
Pepin III
First Carolingian King of the Franks.
Pope Clement V
Pope who moved the main church from Rome to Avignon.
Pope Gregory XI
Was Pope from 30 December 1370 to his death in 1378. He was the seventh and last Avignon Pope.
Lothair
Was the Emperor of the Romans (817-855).
Louis XI
King of France who unified the country.
Giovanni Boccaccio
An Italian author, poet, correspondent of Petrarch, and important Renaissance humanist. Boccaccio wrote a number of notable works, including the Decameron and On Famous Women. As a poet who wrote in the Italian vernacular, Boccaccio is particularly noted for his realistic dialogue.