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67 terms

APUSH Term Sheet # 9

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muckrakers
Progressive Era journalists who wrote articles exposing corruption in city government, business, and industry. In John Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress, "the Man with the Muck-rake" is so preoccupied with raking through the filth at his feet that he didn't notice he was being offered a celestial crown in exchange for his rake
Ida Tarbell
Progressive Era journalist whose expose revealed the ruthlessness of the Standard Oil Company
Lincoln Steffens
Muckraking journalist and managing editor of McClure's Magazine, best known for investigating political corruption in city governments
Upton Sinclair
Socialist writer and reformer whose novel The Jungle exposed unsanitary conditions in the meatpacking industry and advocated socialism
Frank Norris
Muckraker during the Progressive Era; wrote "The Octopus" (1901) that described the power of the railroads over Western farmers
Robert La Follette
Governor of Wisconsin who instituted reforms such as direct primaries, tax reform, and anticorruption measures in Wisconsin
Northern Securities case
Roosevelt's legal attack on the Northern Securities Company, which was a railroad holding company owned by James Hill and J.P. Morgan. In the end, the company was "trust-busted" and paved the way for future trust-busts of bad trusts
Hepburn Act
Law passed by Congress in 1906 that authorized the Interstate Commerce Commission to set maximum railroad rates and regulate other forms of transportation
Meat Inspection Act
Law passed by Congress in 1906 requiring federal inspection of meatpacking
Pure Food and Drug Act
Law passed by Congress in 1906 forbidding the sale of impure and improperly labeled food and drugs
Payne-Aldrich Tariff
Tariff passed by Congress in 1909; the original bill was an attempt to reduce tariffs, but the final version retained high tariffs on most imports
Progressive Party
Political party formed in 1912 with Theodore Roosevelt as its candidate for president; it fell apart when Roosevelt returned to the Republicans in 1916
Underwood Tariff
Law passed by Congress in 1913 that substantially reduced tariffs and made up for the lost revenue by providing for a graduated income tax
Clayton Anti-Trust Act
Law passed by Congress in 1914 banning monopolistic business practices such as price fixing and interlocking directorates; it also exempted farmers' organizations and unions from prosecution under antitrust laws
Margaret Sanger
Birth-control advocate who believed so strongly that information about birth control was essential to help women escape poverty that she disobeyed laws against its dissemination
Muller v. Oregon
Supreme Court case in 1908, upholding an Oregon law that limited the hours of employment for women
Federal Reserve Act
Law passed by Congress in 1913 establishing twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks to hold the cash reserves of commercial banks and a Federal Reserve Board to regulate aspects of banking
Federal Trade Commission
Law passed by Congress in 1914 that outlawed unfair methods of competition in interstate commerce and created a commission appointed by the president to investigate illegal business practices
Jeanette Rankin
Montana reformer who in 1916 became the first woman elected to Congress; she worked to pass the woman sufferage amendment and to protect women in the workplace
feminism
The conviction that women are and should be the social, political, and economic equals of men
local option law
A state law that permitted the residents of a town or city to decide, by an election, whether to ban liquor sales in their community
Mann Act
Law passed by Congress in 1910, designed to supress prostitution; it made transporting a woman across state lines for immoral purposes illegal
Karl Marx
German journalist and philosopher, founder of the Marxist branch of socialism. He is known for two books: The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (Vols. I-III, 1867-1894)
Socialist Party of America
Political party formed in 1901 and committed to socialism- that is, government ownership of most industries
Treaty of Portsmouth
Treaty in 1905, ending the Russo-Japanese War; negotiated at a conference in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, through Theodore Roosevelt's mediation
William Howard Taft
Governor of the Philippines from 1901 to 1904; he was elected president of the United States in 1908 and became chief justice of the Supreme Court in 1921
commission system
System of city government in which all executive and legislative power is vested in a small elective board, each member of which supervises some aspect of city government
city manager plan
System of city government in which a small council, chosen on a nonpartisan ballot, hires a city manager who exercises broad executive authority
city planning
The policy of planning urban development by regulating land use
direct primary
An election in which voters who identify with a specific party choose that party's candidates to run later in the general election against the candidates of other parties
Wisconsin Idea
The program of reform sponsored by La Follette in Wisconsin, designed to decrease political corruption, foster direct democracy, regulate corporations, and increase expertise in governmental decision making
Elkins Act
Law passed by Congress in 1903 that supplemented the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 by penalizing railroads that paid rebates
Square Deal
Theodore Roosevelt's term for his efforts to deal fairly with all
trustbusting
Use of antitrust laws to prosecute and dissolve big businesses ("trusts")
Gifford Pinchot
Head of the Forestry Service from 1898 to 1910; he promoted conservation and urged careful planning in the use of natural resources
Sixteenth Amendment
Constitutional amendment ratified in 1913 that gives the federal government the authority to establish an income tax
Seventeenth Amendment
Constitutional amendment ratified in 1913 that requires the election of U.S. senators directly by the voters of each state, rather than by state legislatures
Eighteenth Amendment
Constitutional amendment, ratified in 1919, that forbade the manufacture, sale, or transportation of alcoholic beverages
Nineteenth Amendment
Constitutional amendment, ratified in 1919, that prohibited federal or state governments from restricting the right to vote on account of sex
New Nationalism
Program of labor and social reform that Theodore Roosevelt advocated before and during his unsuccessful bid to regain the presidency in 1912
Hay-Pauncefote Treaty
Two seperate treaties (1900 and 1901) signed by the United States and Britain taht gave the United States the exclusive right to build, control, and fortify a canal through Central America
Philippe Bunau-Varilla
Chief engineer of the French company that attempted to build a canal through the Panamanian isthmus, chief planner of the Panamanian revolt against Colombia, and later minister to the United States from the new Republic of Panama
Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty
1903 treaty with Panama that granted the United States sovereignty over the Canal Zone in teturn for a $10 million payment plus an annual rent
Roosevelt Corollary
Extension of the Monroe Doctrine announced by Theodore Roosevelt in 1904, in which he proclaimed the right of the United States to police the Carribean areas
Dollar Diplomacy
Name applied by critics to the Taft administration's policy of supporting U.S. investments abroad
Woodrow Wilson
28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
New Freedom
Program of reforms that Woodrow Wilson advocated during his 1912 presidential campaign, including reducing tariffs and prosecuting trusts
Porfirio Diaz
Mexican soldier and politician who became president after a coup in 1876 and ruled Mexico until 1911
Victoriano Huerta
Mexican general who overthrew President Francisco Madero in 1913 and established a military dictatorship until forced to resign in 1914
Vera Cruz
Mexican port that Wilson commanded the navy to capture before congress could respond to his asking them permission to use force against mexico. Huerta and Carranza both opposed this action.
Francisco "Pancho" Villa
Mexican bandit and revolutionary who led a raid into New Mexico in 1916, which prompted the U.S. government to send troops into Mexico in unsuccessful pursuit
Triple Alliance
Alliance that linked Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary in the years before World War I
Triple Entente
Informal alliance that linked France, Great Britain, and Russia in the years before World War I
Central Powers
In World War I, the coalition of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire
John Pershing
President Wilson sent this U.S. general with his army to Mexico to Pancho Villa (never captured Villa)
Fourteen Points
President Wilson's program for maintaining peace after World War I, which called for arms reduction, national self-determination, and a league of nations
Sussex Ultimatum
In response to the German torpedoes Sussex steamer, Wilson told Germany that if they didnt stop sinking merchant ships with warning, he would break diplomatic relations
Committee on Public Information
Organization also known as the Creel Commision which was responsible for rallying American's around the war effort through propaganda
War Industries Board
Federal agency headed by Bernard Baruch that coordinated American production during World War I
Schenck v. U.S.
Unanimously upheld the Espionage Act of 1917 which declared that people who interfered with the war effort were subject to imprisonment; declared that the 1st Amendment right to freedom of speech was not absolute; free speech could be limited if its exercise presented a "clear and present danger."
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty signed in 1919 ending World War I; it imposed harsh terms on Germany, created several territorial mandates, and set up the League of Nations
Irreconcilables
This faction in the U. S. Senate would not accept the League of Nations or the notion of collective security in any form
Reservationists
Republicans who wanted no part with the League of Nations unless there were some changes. They were a burden to the vote on the League of Nations and had a part in its failure to pass
Henry Cabot Lodge
Prominent Republican senator from Massachusetts and chair of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, who led congressional opposition to Article 10 of the League of Nations
The Big Four
Italy, France, England, and the U.S. 4 powers who met at Versallies to discuss peace
League of Nations
A world organization proposed by President Wilson and created by the Versailles peace conference; it worked to promote peace and international cooperation
Muller v. Oregon
Supreme Court case in 1908, upholding an Oregon law that limited the hours of employment for women