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Cancer is the ____ leading cause of death in adults and children in the US
Cancer does not mean..
Order of cancers according to their frequency
Skin, breast, lung, prostate, colorectal
The incidence rates for cancer in ____ is higher than _____.
Among women, which ethnicity has the highest cancer death rates?
Black women, due to poor health care access
The probability that an individual will develop cancer over the course of a lifetime (if you are cancer free right now)
Measures the strength of association between a risk factor a particular cancer
5 Year Survival Rate
Percent of cancer patients who are alive after 5 years / number of patients who have that disease
Downfalls of 5 year survival rate
Doesn't distinguish b/w cures, those who have relapsed, or those still in treatment
Doesn't reflect advances in diagnosis and treatment
The 5 year survival rate allows for comparisons of what?
Allows for comparisons among cancers
What is cancer?
The uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells
Cancer cells differ from normal cells in that...
They exhibit uncontrolled growth by reproducing at an abnormal rate and lack contact inhibition therefore don't know when to stop reproducing
Non-malignant ("good kind")
Resistant to treatment, cancerous
Movement from one part of the body (primary site) to another more distant site (spread)
Cancer is usually identified by the type of tissue or organ it originates in...
Mostly carcinoma (epithelium - skin, layers that cover things) and sarcoma (connective tissue like bones, tendons, cartilage)
Risk factors for cancer
- Growing older, > 55
- UV radiation
- Chemicals and other substances (asbestos)
- Infectious diseases
Which risk factor is the most preventable cause of cancer?
Treatment of cancer
Surgery, chemo, radiation, hormones, immunotherapy, combination of any of the previous treatments, complementary/alternative therapies (smoking marijuana)
Regular screenings only decrease mortality for which cancers?
Breast, colon, rectum, and cervix
In males, what is the order of cancers according to their incidence?
In females, what is the order of cancers according to their incidence?
What is the most common cancer of all?
What are risk factors for non-melanomatous cancer?
Fair skin color, arsenic exposure, increased UV/sun exposure, chronic skin inflammation or ulcers, immunosuppressive drugs or diseases, moles, radiation exposure
List the following cancers in women in order of death rates with the most deadly first: breast, colorectal, lung, skin (non-melanomatous), pancreas
The ethnicity of males at highest risk for prostate cancer is:
BRA1 and BRA2 are genes associated with...
Prostate and Pancreatic cancer
T/F: Benign polyps in a person or a family history of benign polyposis are risk factors for colorectal cancer.
Non-melanomatous skin cancer is highly curable, T/F?
Skin cancer: UVA vs UVB
UVA: related to aging and wrinkling (AGING = UVA)
UVB: damages skin's superficial layers, key role in development of skin cancer and contributes to aging and tanning (BAD = UVB)
Accounts for the most cancer related deaths in both males and females combined.
The most preventable cancer is...
Which cancer has the lowest overall 5 year survival rate?
Lung cancer + pancreatic cancer
Most common cancer in men?
T/F: Smoking and obesity associated with increased risk of death from prostate cancer?
T/F: Prostate cancer has an overall 5 year survival rate of almost 100%
T/F: US has highest incidence rates of breast cancer in the world
Breast cancer is the _____ leading cause of cancer deaths in women
What are the most important risk factors for breast cancer?
- Female gender
- Age > 60
- Presence of BRCA1 / BRCA2 genes
T/F: The overall 5 year survival rate is higher in white women than it is in black women.
True, white women = 90%, black women = 79%
What are some factors that lower risk for breast cancer?
Healthy body weight
Monitoring alcohol consumption
Colorectal is the ___ most common cancer in men and women
Risk factors for colorectal cancer?
Modifiable - obesity
Diet HIGH in red/processed meat
Moderate to heavy alcohol use
Inadequate consumption of fruits/veggies/whole grain fiber
Most deadly cancers?
Lung, colorectal, breast, pancreas, prostate
Who gets pancreatic cancer?
- 30% more common in men
- Increases with age, especially after age 50
- Highest rates seen in African Americans
- Lower SES/education level
When do most testicular cancers occur in men?
Between late teens and early 40's
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma
How are the incidence rates for HL and NHL in men and women?
Incidence rate trends stable for HL in men and women, but slightly higher for NHL in men but stable in women
How are the death rates for HL and NHL in men and women?
Death rates for NHL have been decreasing for the last 20 years. Death rates for HL have been decreasing for the last 40 years
T/F: Incidence rates for cervical cancer have been increasing over several decades.
False, they have been decreasing! :-)
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