NRRT 270 Test 3
Terms in this set (59)
Is an internal factor that: Arouses, directs, integrates a person's behavior
Types of Motives
1. Physiological: Stem from biological needs, Need for oxygen, water, food, relief from pain, Not learned-innate drives.
Ex: Early nomads traveled to satisfy physiological needs
2. Psychological Motives: Stem from needs created by the social environment, generally learned, learning begins early in life and continues throughout life.
Ex: travel for educational purposes
Iso-Ahola's Travel Flow Model
-Individuals seek different levels of stimulation
-They share the need to avoid: Over-stimulation (mental and physical exhaustion), Too little stimulation (boredom)
Complexity vs. Consistency
Consistancy Needs: Balance and harmony in life is desirable, Inconsistency viewed as psychologically uncomfortable, Familiar travel reduces inconsistency
Complexity needs: Novelty, unexpectedness, and change in life is desirable, Predictability is viewed as psychologically uncomfortable, Unfamiliar travel increases complexity
Maslow's Hierarchy & Travel Motivations
-making choices based on satisfying needs
-cannot meet high-order needs until basic ones are met
Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation
-behavior conducted for its own sake(personal control, choice)
-Bechavior under the control of outside rewards(competencies, social norms, social recognitions, etc.)
Pearce's Travel Needs Ladder
-Applies both Maslow's Hierarchy and Concept of inrinsic/ extrinsic
-People have a life cycle in their travel behavior which reflects a hierarchy of motives
-Intrinsic/extrinsic motivations a each level except the top.
Typologie: Elands & Lengkeek's (general vacation experience preferences)
Amusement: older, returning vacationers OR younger travelers with an interest in fun.
Change: Busy parents
Interest: Older, no kids at home, desire learning(cultural sites)
Rapure: Younger, interest in outdoor sports and nature activities, less interest in comfort and amenities.
Dedication: Higher education, desire solitude, greater environmental concern and attachment to nature, immersion in the culture or place.
Cohen's Phenomenology of tourist experiences
-Reflects extent of detachment from familiar world.
Plog's Psychographic Profile
-Low activity levels
-Less developed areas
-Novel destinations and culture
Silimarities among the typologies
Why study motivations?
-To match tourists with destinations and travel exoeriences
-Aids in promotion and marketing of destinations
-Provides sound basis for deciding the types of environmetns and services to provide
-To maximize vistor satisfaction with travel experiences
Gunn's 5 components of supply
Attractions, Transportation, Services, Information, Promotion
4 major tourism supply components
Natural resources and environment, Built environment, operating sectors, spirit of hospitality
What is Demand?
The amount of any product or service that people are willing and able to buy at each specific price in a set of possible prices during some specified period of time.
Why is demand important?
-To assess current adequacy of supply
-To plan for future development
-To develop marketing plans
What influences tourism demand?
Four major factors:
What factors are related to propensity and resistance?
D=f (propensity, resistance)
-Propensity= how willing or likely a person is to travel or participate in tourist activities
-Resistance= deterrents to travel/participation
Traditional activity approach in recreation
Developed in the 1970's:
-A need to be more responsive to the public in recreation management
-Inadequacies of the traditional activity approach
Redifined the notion of recreation "products"
Rooted in a service-oriented philosophy.
Tries to understand why people recreate and what it is they desire.
Basic tenet: people choose to participate in recreation based on wanting to achieve certain benefits.
Desired psychological outcomes?
Enjoy Nature, Independence, Physical fitness, escape physical stressors, outdoor learning
What factors define desired recreation opportunities?
Activity, Motivations, Setting & Management
Measures of actual demand
past and current participation
Techniques for projecting future demand
Interest in future participation.
-Problem with estimating:
Doesn't always translate into actual behavior-need other sources of information to inform us
What is lanten demand?
unsatisfied demand, demand currently not being met due to such things as inadequate supply or inability to meet certain needs.
Task analysis and ways to mach supply with demand
-Identify presend demand
-Inventory and assess adequacy of existing supply
-Forecast demand and study markets
-match supply wih anticipated demand- adjustments necessary?
-The world's largest industry
-Increasingly the "new economic generator" replacing declining activity in agriculture, mining, and manufacturing
3 major goals in tourism
1. Maximize the psychological experience for tourists.
2. Maximize profits for business
3. Maximize primary and secondary benefits for tourist destinations.
Concept of optimization and constraints
Attainment of an optimum return from the use of scarce resources.
Demand, supply of attractive resources(limited resources for enjoyment), technical & environmental restraints(capacity of natural environment), time constraints, indivisbles(can't fly half an airplane), Legal(environmental laws), Self-Imposed(conflicting goals between bus. and gov.), Lack of knowledge(need for better promotion tactics), Limits on supportive resources(limits on labor)
Generators of economic impact
4 main categories:
-Number of visitors
-Employment: direct and indirect
The multiplier effect and ways to enhance it
Reflects the amount of new economic activity generated from tourist expenditures.
-Focus on providing tourism services year-round
-Hire local labor
-buy local products
-reduce reliance on imports
Concept of leakage
Savings- mone set aside that is not loaned to another spender within a year.
Imports- spending on tourism needs in sources outside the destination area
-Both of these have the same effect-they do not stimulate the local economy
Concept of elasticity
The percentage change in demand resulting from a given percentage change in price
Tourism Satellite Account
-Tourism's contribution to GDP
-Tourism's ranking compared to other economic sectors
-The number of jobs created by tourism
-Tax revenues generated by tourism
Problems and considerations associated with dependence on tourism and tourism development
-It is subject to seasonality
-demand depends on income and preferences of tourists
-Travel is not always a necessity
-costs of tourism development
-other types of impacts
-needs of local communities
-perceptions of local residents-social exchange theory.
Ways to classify tourism
Urban vs. Rural tourism
-Trips and visits with a focus on town and city destinations, also know as city tourism.
-an industry sector characterized by small scale tourism businesses, set in areas where land is dominated by agricultural pursuits, forestry or natural areas.
that which a past generation has preserved and handed on to the present and which a significant group of the population wishes to hand on to the future.
Trips and visits to health resorts and other destinations hose main purpose is health treatment ranging from therapeutic treatments for various diseases to fitness and relaxtion programs.
Wine & Alcohol tourism
Visits to vineyards, wineries, wine fesivalsm, alcohol tours
The desire to experience a particular type of food, the produce of a specific region, or even to taste the dishes of a particular chef must be the major motivation for the travel
Travel that contains an element of personal challenge, through controlled risk, daring and excitement, often in an inaccessible environment.
Trips & visits primarily motivated by the prospect of sexual encounters. Associated with sex, whether involving intercourse or observation
Act of travel and visitaion to sites, attractions and exhibitaion which have death, suffering or seemingly macabre as the main theme.`
What is culture?
-Shared knowledge, beliefs, and patterns of behavior
-Complex reflection of how people in a given society live, work, and play
-Socially learned ways of living found in human societies
Characteristics of culture
-Shared=certain beliefs and behaviors common among memebers
-Learned(socialization)=transmitted from one generation to the next through learning
-Patterned=there are agreed-upon rules in a culture that people honor/follow
-Flexible=cultures change or adapt to existing societal conditions
Culture and impacts on behavior
changes in economic modes of production, technology, demographics like urbanization, and environment can contribute to culture change which in turn affects values
What is globalization?
=interconnectivity of societies in the modern world.
-Connection of cultures through electronic media
All aspects of travel whereby people learn about each other's ways of life and thought
Roles of cultural tourism
-Contributes to world peace
-Also means of establishing international or cross-cultural cooperation
Examples of social/cultural elements contributing to attractiveness of tourism regions
work, dress, architecture, handicrafts, history, language, religion, education, traditions, leisure activities, art/music, gastronomy
What are some was to promote cultural tourism?
-heritage interpretation and "life-seeing" tourism programs
-Development of out-of-season tourism
-Concentration of activities around important themes(ex: festivals, "twinning")
What is sociology?
-The study of social groups- their values, attitudes, behaviorsm, and interactions
-The science of society, social institutions, and social relationships (systems)
4 main areas of interest for sociology of tourism
1. Studies about tourists themselves
2. Studies about interactions between tourists and local residents
3. Studies about tourism impacts
4. Studies about tourism systems
Who is impacted by tourism?
1. The individual-the traveler
2. The Family
3. Host community
4. Society as a whole
Positive impacts on the host community
-Increased standard of living
-enhance sense of cultural pride
-preservation of cultural resources
Negative impacts on the host community
-damaging physical impacts by visitors
-Introduction of undesirable activities
-Demonstration effect (locals want the same luxuries that tourist have)
-loss of cultural pride
-locals as servants
Social exchange theory
-understanding resident attitudes toward tourism
-model: sociodemographics->personal benefits->perceived impacts->support for tourism
Influence of sociodemographic characteristics
-Age (trend: 65+ market)
-families (Young singles, couples, empty nest)
-urbanization (increasing, less residential stability, urban congestion)
-income (dramatic increases-interrelated, frequent travel, shorter)
-disabilities (travel restrictions, stay shorter, difficult recreational facilities)
-ethnicity (Changing rapidly)