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The view that reality consists of two equal and irreducible forces

conflict dualism

The view of earthly life as a struggle between spirit and flesh
- The body is a material object which simply frustrates the full development of the mind or spirit


The view that ideas- or the mind that produces these ideas- constitutes the essence of human nature
(a notion established as far back as Plato in Western thought)
Human nature is determined by the casual force of mind of spirit


The view that the material activities of our physical bodies in the material world constitute the essence of human nature


We are reduced to genes, hormones, and biology


Human nature is determined by casual force of physical matter


The view that one simple force causes or determines complex events


An unchanging core of features that is unique to things of the same kind and makes them what they are


Assumes that mind and body, individual and society, and individual and environment are interdependent and define each other


There are no sharp boundaries which separates environment, individual, and society


People are molded by cultural experiences, and would have become completely different people had they been raised in isolation


Social living and cultural sharing are necessary to develop what we refer to as "human nature"


The relationship between biological processes and symbolic cultural processes in which each makes up an important part of the environment to which the other must adapt


"human beings are open to becoming something more than what has gone into making them what they are at a given point in time."


the study of ancient human remains; comparing bones, teeth etc.

cultural anthropology

Shows how variations in the beliefs and behaviors of people of different cultures is shaped by sets of learned behaviors and ideas tat human beings acquire as being members of a certain society

cultural anthropology

"the study of common sense"


thinking about why and how one thinks about specific things

biocultural organisms

Organisms whose defining features are co-determined by both biological and cultural factors

cultural relativism

Understanding another culture in its own terms, even if you don't happen to agree with said terms


The opinion that your own way of life is the natural and correct way, and is the only true way of being fully human

human agency

The idea that humans have at least some control over their lives

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