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21 terms

Chapter 21: Kingdom Fungi

Vocabulary terms from Chapter 21 of Prentice Hall Biology. This chapter covers the kingdom of fungi, their characteristics, classification, and ecology.
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chitin
complex carbohydrate that makes up the cell walls of fungi; also found in the external skeletons of arthropods
hypha
tiny filament that makes up a multicellular fungus or a water mold
mycelium
many hyphae tangled together into a thick mass; comprises the bodies of multicellular fungi
fruiting body
slender reproductive structure that produces spores and is found in some funguslike protists; reproductive structure of fungus that develops from a mycelium
sporangium
structure in ferns and some fungi that contains spores
sporangiophore
specialized hyphae where sporangia are found
zygospore
resting spore that contains zygotes formed during the sexual phase of a mold's life cycle
rhizoid
in fungi, a rootlike hypha that penetrates the surface of an object; in mosses, a long thin cell that anchors the moss to the ground and absorbs water and minerals from the surrounding soil
stolon
in fungi, a stemlike hypha that runs along the surface of an object; in plants, a long, trailing stem that produces roots when it touches the ground
gametangium
gamete-producing structure found in black bread mold
conidium
tiny fungal spore that forms at the tips of specialized hyphae in ascomycetes
ascus
stucuture within the fruiting body of an ascomycete in which two nuclei of different mating types fuse
ascospore
haploid spore produced within the ascus of ascomycetes
budding
asexual process by which yeasts increase in number; process of attaching a bud to a plant to produce a new branch
basidium
spore-bearing structure of a basidiomycete
basidiospore
spore in basidiomycetes that germinates to produce haploid primary mycelia
ascomycete
member of the fungal phylum Ascomycota, commonly called sac fungus; name comes from the saclike structure in which the spores develop
basidiomycete
member of the fungal phylum Basidiomycota, commonly called club fungus; name comes from the club-like shape of the basidium
saprobe
organism that obtains food from decaying organic matter
lichen
symbiotic association between a fungus and a photosynthetic organism
mycorrhiza
symbiotic association of plant roots and fungi