37 terms

Chapter 8, Political Geography

AP Human Geography; Rubenstein and Fellman
STUDY
PLAY
balance of power
condition of roughly equal strength between opposing countries or alliances of countries
Berlin Conference
a meeting (in 1884) at which representatives of European nations agreed upon rules for the European colonization of Africa
boundary
invisible line that marks the extent of a state's territory
city-state
a sovereign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland
colonialism
attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory
colony
a territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than completely independent
compact state
a state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly
devolution
the transfer of certain powers from the state central government to separate political subdivisions within the state's territory
elongated state
A state with a long, narrow shape
fragmented state
a state that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory
federal state
an internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government
frontier
a zone separating two states in which neither state exercises political control
high seas
areas of oceans away from land, beyond national jurisdiction, open and free for all to use
EEZ
exclusive economic zone, as established in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, a zone of exploration extending 200 nautical miles (370 km) seaward from a coastal state that has exclusive mineral and fishing rights over it
gerrymander
process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power
imperialism
control of territory already occupied and organized by an indigenous society
irredentism
the policy of a state wishing to incorporate within itself territory inhabited by people who have ethnic or linguistic links with the country but that lies within a neighboring state
landlocked state
a state that does not have a direct outlet to the sea
microstate
a state that encompasses a very small land area
multinational state
state that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities
perforated state
a state that completely surrounds another one
prorupted state
an otherwise compact state with a large projecting extension
sovereignty
ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states
state
an area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs
stateless nation
a nation without a state (e.g., Kurds, Palestinians, Basques, Gypsies-Roma)
territorial waters
the area of sea around a country's coast recognized as being under that country's jurisdiction (12 nautical miles as established in the "Law of the Sea")
unitary state
an internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials
supranationalism
term applied to associations created by three or more states for their mutual benefit and achievement of shared objectives (multi-national political communities)
United Nations
international organization founded in 1945 to promote world peace and cooperation. It replaced the League of Nations
Civil divisions
governmental divisions that divide citizens--like the Berlin Wall dividing East and West Germany, and the division of India into India, Pakistan and (now) Bangladesh upon the withdrawal of Great Britain
Anocracy
a country that is not fully democratic or fully autocratic but rather displays a mix of the two types
Autocracy
a country that is run according to the interests of the ruler rather than the people
Democracy
a country in which citizens elect leaders and can run for office
Multiethnic State
a state that contains more than one ethnicity
Nation-state
a state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity
Self-determination
the concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves
Terrorism
violence by a group to create fear among a population or to coerce a government into actions it would not normally do