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The area of the brain involved in temperature regulation is the:


Some neurotoxins and local anesthetics work essentially the same way, which is to

(B) bind to Na+ channels and inactivate them and (C) prevent depolarization by blocking Na+ entry into the cell.

The function of the cerebrospinal fluid is to:

protect the brain and spinal cord

The brachial plexus consists of branches of the last 4 cervical and the 1st thoracic spinal nerves. T/F?


Impulses of taste are interpreted in the:

parietal lobe

Parasympathetic postganglionic fibers

are cholinergic

Injury to spino-cerebellar tract would result in :

uncoordinated movements

A change in a membrane potential from +30 mV to -70 mV is an example of


When a second EPSP arrives at a single synapse before the effects of the first have disappeared, what occurs?

temporal summation

Which of the following does not apply to Wernicke's area?

is responsible for controlling the muscles necessary for speaking ability

Epinephrine and norepinephrine that are released from the adrenal glands affect target tissue for a longer period of time than the same substances released from neurons at their peripheral receptors. Why?

There are no enzymes to break down epinephrine and norepinephrine in the blood and very little in peripheral tissues

The neurotransmitter released at the neuromuscular junction is:


Sweat glands contain

cholinergic receptors.

The presence of glucose _________or _________in CSF suggests infection. Choose from the following: 1.glucose 2.protein 3. K+ 4. H+ 5. blood cells

protein, blood cells

When chemically-gated Na+ channels open

the membrane depolarizes.

Nicotinic receptors

respond to acetylcholine released from both sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic fibers.

In comparing the outside (extracellular space) with the inside of the neuron (intracellular space) the outside is :

positive with respect to inside and negative with respect to inside when the action potential spreads over the nerve

A neurohormone (chemical mediator) is secreted by:

synaptic knobs of the axon

The direct cause of the resting potential is:

difference in concentration of positive and negatively charged ions in the intra and extra cellular fluids

The brain consumes about half of the __________ circulating in the body.


Which are ascending pathways?

spinocerebellar and fasiculus gracillis, fasiculus cuneatus

A spastic paralysis usually indicated:

upper motor neuron damage

When graded potentials reach the trigger zone,

an action potential may be initiated, they may depolarize the membrane to the threshold voltage, they may hyperpolarize the membrane; they may be called EPSP's or IPSP's

Broca's speech area has been designated (according to Brodman) area:


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