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41 terms

Medical Term Chapter 15 taralynn09

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What is abnormal back flow of urine from the bladder to the ureter called?
vesicoureteral reflux
Which term best describes a distention of the renal pelvis and calyces due to urine that cannot exit into the ureters?
hydronephrosis
What is inflammation of the urinary bladder called?
cystitis
Select the term that best describes a hereditary disorder in which grape-like sacs replace normal kidney tissue.
polycystic kidney disease
What is shunting the blood so that it may be filtered known as?
hemodialysis
What is another way of describing renal calculi?
nephrolithiasis
What is an inability to empty the urinary bladder called?
urinary retention
What is an inability to control the urinary bladder called?
urinary incontinence
Which term best describes an inflammation of the renal pelvis?
pyelonephritis
What is the medical term for ureteral stricture?
ureterostenosis
What is herniation of the urinary bladder into the vagina called?
vesicocele
What is removal of toxins from the blood called?
filtration
What is returning water, electrolytes, and nutrients to the bloodstream called?
reabsorption
What is the release of urine from the urinary bladder called?
micturition
What is a term that is synonymous for albuminuria?
proteinuria
Which term best describes the specific filtration structure of the urinary system?
glomerulus
Select the urinary structure that is most closely associated with reabsorption of water, electrolytes, and nutrients.
renal tubule
Renal tubules empty urine into the ____.
renal pelvis
Where are glomeruli located?
renal cortex
What is the functional unit of the kidney called?
nephron
What does dysuria mean?
Painful urination
What is the presence of bacteria in the urine?
bacteruria
Which is not a characteristic of urine?
weight
What does normal urine not contain?
all of the above
What is the act of eliminating urine from the body?
urination
What does turbid mean?
cloudy
The female urethra transports what?
urine
The urinary system consists of what?
two kidneys, two ureters, one bladder, and one urethra
Blood flows into the kidneys via what?
renal arteries
The central part of the kidney narrows into the large upper end of a tubular structure known as what?
ureter
What is the term used for a malignant tumor of the kidney that is usually symptom free until the later stages of the disease?
renal cell carcinoma
The release of urine from the bladder is regulated by what
external sphincter
Which hormone does the kidney produce that specifically stimulates the production of red blood cells within the bone marrow?
erythropoietin
What does homeostasis mean?
to maintain a stable body environment
To be palpable means to distinguish by what?
touch
What is the the result of the breakdown of fats in the urine?
ketones
Wha tis the normal pH of urine?
4.5 to 8.0
When the renal tubules are unable to absord the total quantity of sugar filtered through the glomerular membrane, the hyperglycemia leads to the presence of sugar in the urine. What is this an indication of?
diabetes mellitus
What term means the number of repititions of urinary output?
frequency
Whenever the body begins to feel weakness of discomfort, this is usually a sign of what?
malaise
The mechanical filtering process used to cleanse the blood of waste products and regulate body chemistry whenever the kidneys fail to function properly is known as what?
dialysis