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What is abnormal back flow of urine from the bladder to the ureter called?

vesicoureteral reflux

Which term best describes a distention of the renal pelvis and calyces due to urine that cannot exit into the ureters?


What is inflammation of the urinary bladder called?


Select the term that best describes a hereditary disorder in which grape-like sacs replace normal kidney tissue.

polycystic kidney disease

What is shunting the blood so that it may be filtered known as?


What is another way of describing renal calculi?


What is an inability to empty the urinary bladder called?

urinary retention

What is an inability to control the urinary bladder called?

urinary incontinence

Which term best describes an inflammation of the renal pelvis?


What is the medical term for ureteral stricture?


What is herniation of the urinary bladder into the vagina called?


What is removal of toxins from the blood called?


What is returning water, electrolytes, and nutrients to the bloodstream called?


What is the release of urine from the urinary bladder called?


What is a term that is synonymous for albuminuria?


Which term best describes the specific filtration structure of the urinary system?


Select the urinary structure that is most closely associated with reabsorption of water, electrolytes, and nutrients.

renal tubule

Renal tubules empty urine into the ____.

renal pelvis

Where are glomeruli located?

renal cortex

What is the functional unit of the kidney called?


What does dysuria mean?

Painful urination

What is the presence of bacteria in the urine?


Which is not a characteristic of urine?


What does normal urine not contain?

all of the above

What is the act of eliminating urine from the body?


What does turbid mean?


The female urethra transports what?


The urinary system consists of what?

two kidneys, two ureters, one bladder, and one urethra

Blood flows into the kidneys via what?

renal arteries

The central part of the kidney narrows into the large upper end of a tubular structure known as what?


What is the term used for a malignant tumor of the kidney that is usually symptom free until the later stages of the disease?

renal cell carcinoma

The release of urine from the bladder is regulated by what

external sphincter

Which hormone does the kidney produce that specifically stimulates the production of red blood cells within the bone marrow?


What does homeostasis mean?

to maintain a stable body environment

To be palpable means to distinguish by what?


What is the the result of the breakdown of fats in the urine?


Wha tis the normal pH of urine?

4.5 to 8.0

When the renal tubules are unable to absord the total quantity of sugar filtered through the glomerular membrane, the hyperglycemia leads to the presence of sugar in the urine. What is this an indication of?

diabetes mellitus

What term means the number of repititions of urinary output?


Whenever the body begins to feel weakness of discomfort, this is usually a sign of what?


The mechanical filtering process used to cleanse the blood of waste products and regulate body chemistry whenever the kidneys fail to function properly is known as what?


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