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in vitro fertilization (IVF)

when a sperm and an egg are joined in a petri dish, and the embryo is implanted into the mother's uterus

cell division

also known as reproduction; two daughter cells are produced that are genetically identical to each other and to the parent cell


the structures that contain most of the organism's DNA; where most genes are located in a eukaryotic cell

1) replaces damaged or lost cells
2) permits growth
3) allows for reproduction

three things cell division does

asexual reproduction

single-celled organisms reproduce by simple cell division, and there is no fertilization of an egg by a sperm


the type of cell division responsible for asexual reproduction and growth and maintenance of multicellular organisms; the nucleus and its contents divide evenly into two daughter nuclei

1) amoeba
2) sea stars
3) african violet

three organisms that undergo asexual reproduction

sexual reproduction

requires fertilization of an egg by a sperm using a special type of cell division called meiosis


what chromosomes are made of; a combination of DNA and protein molecules


the number of chromosomes in human somatic cells


the number of chromosomes in human reproductive cells (sperm and egg cells)


proteins used to package DNA in eukaryotes


consist of DNA wound around histone molecules

sister chromatids

the result of a cell duplicating its chromosomes before it divides


the narrow "waist" that sister chromatids are joined together by

the cell cycle

the orderly sequence of events that dividing eukaryotic cells undergo

1) interphase
2) mitotic phase

the two distinct phases of the cell cycle


the stage of the cell cycle that a cell performs its normal functions, doubles everything in its cytoplasm, and grows in size

mitotic (M) phase

the phase of the cell cycle that includes two overlapping processes: mitosis and cytokinesis


when the cytoplasm is divided in two; occurs during telophase

1) prophase
2) metaphase
3) anaphase
4) telophase

phases of mitosis

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