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21 terms

Biology - Chapter 8 (Mitosis)

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in vitro fertilization (IVF)
when a sperm and an egg are joined in a petri dish, and the embryo is implanted into the mother's uterus
cell division
also known as reproduction; two daughter cells are produced that are genetically identical to each other and to the parent cell
chromosomes
the structures that contain most of the organism's DNA; where most genes are located in a eukaryotic cell
1) replaces damaged or lost cells
2) permits growth
3) allows for reproduction
three things cell division does
asexual reproduction
single-celled organisms reproduce by simple cell division, and there is no fertilization of an egg by a sperm
mitosis
the type of cell division responsible for asexual reproduction and growth and maintenance of multicellular organisms; the nucleus and its contents divide evenly into two daughter nuclei
1) amoeba
2) sea stars
3) african violet
three organisms that undergo asexual reproduction
sexual reproduction
requires fertilization of an egg by a sperm using a special type of cell division called meiosis
chromatin
what chromosomes are made of; a combination of DNA and protein molecules
46
the number of chromosomes in human somatic cells
23
the number of chromosomes in human reproductive cells (sperm and egg cells)
histones
proteins used to package DNA in eukaryotes
nucleosomes
consist of DNA wound around histone molecules
sister chromatids
the result of a cell duplicating its chromosomes before it divides
centromere
the narrow "waist" that sister chromatids are joined together by
the cell cycle
the orderly sequence of events that dividing eukaryotic cells undergo
1) interphase
2) mitotic phase
the two distinct phases of the cell cycle
interphase
the stage of the cell cycle that a cell performs its normal functions, doubles everything in its cytoplasm, and grows in size
mitotic (M) phase
the phase of the cell cycle that includes two overlapping processes: mitosis and cytokinesis
cytokinesis
when the cytoplasm is divided in two; occurs during telophase
1) prophase
2) metaphase
3) anaphase
4) telophase
phases of mitosis