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A clinical psychologist who explains behavior in terms of unconscious drives and conflicts is employing the

Psycho dynamic perspective

The study of human problem solving strategies is most likely to be a central focus of the

Cognitive perspective

Mrs. Alferi believes that her husband's irritability toward her results from his unconscious feelings of hostility toward his mother. Mrs. Alferi in interpreting her husbands behavior from a ___ perspective


What technique was Freud most likely using in an attempt to uncover the hidden conflicts underlying his patients symptoms

Free association

The pleasure principle is to the ___ as the reality principle is to the ____

ID; Ego

If those with low self esteem are also particularly likely to suffer from depression this would not necessarily indicate that low self esteem triggers negative emotions because

Correlation does not prove causation

In an experiment neither the patient nor the experimenters know whether or not the pills he takes during the experiment contain aspirin or are merely placebos. The investigators are making use of te

Double blind procedure

In a psychological procedure researchers are interested in studying the potential effects of the __- variable


The function of dendrites is to

Receiving incoming signals from other neurons

In transmitting sensory information to the brain, an electrical signal with a single neuron travels from the

Dendrites to the cell body to the axon

Correct sequence in transmission of a neural impulse

Dendrite cell body axon synapse

Heartbeat digestion and other self regulating body functions are governed by the

autonomic nervous system

The visual cortex is located in the

occipital lobe

The chemical messengers released into the spatial junctions between neurons are called


In order for you to experience the pain of a sprained ankle ____ must first relay messages from your ankle to your central nervous system

Sensory neurons

The symptoms of FAS indicate the alcohol is a


When Joan touched her infants cheek, he turned his head toward the side that was touched and opened his mouth. Joan was eliciting the

Rooting reflex

According to Piaget assimilation involves

Interpreting new experiences in terms of one's current understanding

Adjusting current schemas to make sense of new information is called


The use of free association is central to the process of


Characteristic patters of behavior and motivation are called


The humanistic perspective emphasizes the importance of

Self determination

Lisa attempts to retrieve her bottle after her father hides it under a blanket. This suggest that Lisa has developed a sense of

Object permanence

Young children typically try to stay very close to their parents when they are in an unfamiliar setting. this best illustrates the adaptive value of


Babies who are unable to predict how their parents will react to their cries for care and attention are usually likely to show signs of

Insecure attachment

Erik Erickson suggested that children with a very secure attachment to their parents are especially likely to experience

Basic Trust

Non reproductive sexual characteristics such as the deepened male voice and facial hair on the male are called

Secondary sex characteristics

Henry resists stealing jelly beans from his sisters Easter basket because he's afraid his mother will spank him if he does. Henry's thinking best represents a ____ morality

pre conventional

According to Erickson, adolescents who are unable to develop a sense of identity experience

Role Confusion

Attribution theory was designed to account for

How people explain other's behavior

The fundamental attribution error refers to our tendency to underestimate the impact of ___ and to overestimate the impact of ____ in explaining the behavior of others

Situational influence; personal dispositions

Attitudes are ___ that guide behavior

Beliefs and feelings

The foot in the door phenomenon refers to the tendency to

Comply with a large request if one has previously complied with a small request

When a sales person visits your home, and asks you to try a free sample of a cleaning fluid you agree. When he returns the following week and asks you to purchase an assortment of expensive cleaning products you make the purchase. The sales person appears to have made effective use of the

Foot in the door phenomenon

The discomfort we feel when two thoughts are inconsistent is called

Cognitive dissonance

The impact of the foot in the door phenomenon was indicated by

The destructive obedience of participants in the Milgram experiments

The tendency for people to exert less effort when they are pooling their efforts toward a common goal is known as

Social loafing

psychoanalytic theory suggests that the Ego disguises threatening impulses and reduces anxiety by means of

Defense mechanisms

Deindividuation refers to

A loss of self awareness and self restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity

Ellen is consistently optimistic talkative and impulsive. Each of these characteristics most clearly represents a


Which perspective on personality emphasizes the importance of our capacity for healthy growth and self realization


Patient's negative expectations about the outcome of a surgical procedure can increase their post operative experience of pain

Top down processing

The absolute threshold is the minimum about of stimulation that a person needs to detect a stimulus

50% of the time

An exhausted forest ranger may notice the faintest scent of a forest fire whereas much stringer but less important odors fail to catch her attention. This fact would be of greatest relevance to

signal detection theory

some people are better than others at detecting slight variations in the taste of various blends of coffee. This best illustrates the importance of

Difference thresholds

The local fire department sounds the 12:00 whistle. The process by which your ears convert the sound waves from the siren into neural impulses is an example of


Accommodation refers to the

Process by which the lens changes shape in order to focus images on the retina

The blind spot is in the area of the retina

Where the optic nerve leaves the eye

Evidence that some cones are especially sensitive to red light, others to green light, and still others to blue light is most directly supportive of the ___ theory

Young- Helmholtz

In order to experience color constancy it is helpful to view things

In relation to surrounding objects

The barn owl's right ear opens slightly upward while its left ear opens slightly downward. This asymmetry is most useful for enabling the Owl to detect the ___ of a sound


After 4 years of working nights, Raymond now works days. His present difficulty in getting to sleep at night is most likely due to a disruption to his normal

Circadian rhythm

After Carlos had been asleep for about an hour, his heart began to beat faster, his breathing became fast and irregular and his closed eyes began to dart back and forth Carlos was most likely experiencing

REM Sleep

What is not a characteristic of REM sleep

Voluntary muscles tense and become more active

Paradoxical sleep is to slow wave sleep as ____ sleep is to ___ sleep

REM; Stage 4

Feli has been asleep for 3 hours. As he continues to sleep, we can expect that ____ sleep will diminish and that ____ sleep will increase in duration

Stage 4; REM

Stimulants are to caffeine as depressants are to


Insomnia is a disorder involving

recurring difficulty staying or falling asleep

Which of the following sleep disorders would be the most incapacitating for a commercial airline pilot


Mr. Dayton occasionally stops breathing while sleeping. He wakes up to snort air for a few seconds before falling back to sleep. Mrs. Dayton complains that her husband snores. Clearly, Mr. Dayton suffers from

Sleep Apnea

research studies of the content of dreams indicate that

Females are more likely than males to dream about members of the opposite sex

Freud called the remembered story line of a dream its ___ content


Those who study hypnosis agree that it is a state of

Heightened Suggestibility

Hypnotized people are more likely to perform dangerous acts than those who are asked to simulate hypnosis. This fact is most consistent with

Social influence theory

Alcohol, Marijuana, cocaine, and a wide variety of other chemical agents that alter perceptions and moods are called

Psychoactive drugs

Drug tolerance refers to the

Reduced effect of a drug resulting form its regular usage

The divided- Consciousness theory of hypnosis states that hypnosis involves


Alcohol consumption ___ sympathetic nervous system activity, and ____ self awareness

Decreases; Decreases

What drug is classified as a stimulant


Addictions to ___ are often overcome without professional help

Alcohol, nicotine and heroine

LSD is most likely to produce


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