71 terms

Psychology Practice Questions

A clinical psychologist who explains behavior in terms of unconscious drives and conflicts is employing the
Psycho dynamic perspective
The study of human problem solving strategies is most likely to be a central focus of the
Cognitive perspective
Mrs. Alferi believes that her husband's irritability toward her results from his unconscious feelings of hostility toward his mother. Mrs. Alferi in interpreting her husbands behavior from a ___ perspective
What technique was Freud most likely using in an attempt to uncover the hidden conflicts underlying his patients symptoms
Free association
The pleasure principle is to the ___ as the reality principle is to the ____
ID; Ego
If those with low self esteem are also particularly likely to suffer from depression this would not necessarily indicate that low self esteem triggers negative emotions because
Correlation does not prove causation
In an experiment neither the patient nor the experimenters know whether or not the pills he takes during the experiment contain aspirin or are merely placebos. The investigators are making use of te
Double blind procedure
In a psychological procedure researchers are interested in studying the potential effects of the __- variable
The function of dendrites is to
Receiving incoming signals from other neurons
In transmitting sensory information to the brain, an electrical signal with a single neuron travels from the
Dendrites to the cell body to the axon
Correct sequence in transmission of a neural impulse
Dendrite cell body axon synapse
Heartbeat digestion and other self regulating body functions are governed by the
autonomic nervous system
The visual cortex is located in the
occipital lobe
The chemical messengers released into the spatial junctions between neurons are called
In order for you to experience the pain of a sprained ankle ____ must first relay messages from your ankle to your central nervous system
Sensory neurons
The symptoms of FAS indicate the alcohol is a
When Joan touched her infants cheek, he turned his head toward the side that was touched and opened his mouth. Joan was eliciting the
Rooting reflex
According to Piaget assimilation involves
Interpreting new experiences in terms of one's current understanding
Adjusting current schemas to make sense of new information is called
The use of free association is central to the process of
Characteristic patters of behavior and motivation are called
The humanistic perspective emphasizes the importance of
Self determination
Lisa attempts to retrieve her bottle after her father hides it under a blanket. This suggest that Lisa has developed a sense of
Object permanence
Young children typically try to stay very close to their parents when they are in an unfamiliar setting. this best illustrates the adaptive value of
Babies who are unable to predict how their parents will react to their cries for care and attention are usually likely to show signs of
Insecure attachment
Erik Erickson suggested that children with a very secure attachment to their parents are especially likely to experience
Basic Trust
Non reproductive sexual characteristics such as the deepened male voice and facial hair on the male are called
Secondary sex characteristics
Henry resists stealing jelly beans from his sisters Easter basket because he's afraid his mother will spank him if he does. Henry's thinking best represents a ____ morality
pre conventional
According to Erickson, adolescents who are unable to develop a sense of identity experience
Role Confusion
Attribution theory was designed to account for
How people explain other's behavior
The fundamental attribution error refers to our tendency to underestimate the impact of ___ and to overestimate the impact of ____ in explaining the behavior of others
Situational influence; personal dispositions
Attitudes are ___ that guide behavior
Beliefs and feelings
The foot in the door phenomenon refers to the tendency to
Comply with a large request if one has previously complied with a small request
When a sales person visits your home, and asks you to try a free sample of a cleaning fluid you agree. When he returns the following week and asks you to purchase an assortment of expensive cleaning products you make the purchase. The sales person appears to have made effective use of the
Foot in the door phenomenon
The discomfort we feel when two thoughts are inconsistent is called
Cognitive dissonance
The impact of the foot in the door phenomenon was indicated by
The destructive obedience of participants in the Milgram experiments
The tendency for people to exert less effort when they are pooling their efforts toward a common goal is known as
Social loafing
psychoanalytic theory suggests that the Ego disguises threatening impulses and reduces anxiety by means of
Defense mechanisms
Deindividuation refers to
A loss of self awareness and self restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
Ellen is consistently optimistic talkative and impulsive. Each of these characteristics most clearly represents a
Which perspective on personality emphasizes the importance of our capacity for healthy growth and self realization
Patient's negative expectations about the outcome of a surgical procedure can increase their post operative experience of pain
Top down processing
The absolute threshold is the minimum about of stimulation that a person needs to detect a stimulus
50% of the time
An exhausted forest ranger may notice the faintest scent of a forest fire whereas much stringer but less important odors fail to catch her attention. This fact would be of greatest relevance to
signal detection theory
some people are better than others at detecting slight variations in the taste of various blends of coffee. This best illustrates the importance of
Difference thresholds
The local fire department sounds the 12:00 whistle. The process by which your ears convert the sound waves from the siren into neural impulses is an example of
Accommodation refers to the
Process by which the lens changes shape in order to focus images on the retina
The blind spot is in the area of the retina
Where the optic nerve leaves the eye
Evidence that some cones are especially sensitive to red light, others to green light, and still others to blue light is most directly supportive of the ___ theory
Young- Helmholtz
In order to experience color constancy it is helpful to view things
In relation to surrounding objects
The barn owl's right ear opens slightly upward while its left ear opens slightly downward. This asymmetry is most useful for enabling the Owl to detect the ___ of a sound
After 4 years of working nights, Raymond now works days. His present difficulty in getting to sleep at night is most likely due to a disruption to his normal
Circadian rhythm
After Carlos had been asleep for about an hour, his heart began to beat faster, his breathing became fast and irregular and his closed eyes began to dart back and forth Carlos was most likely experiencing
REM Sleep
What is not a characteristic of REM sleep
Voluntary muscles tense and become more active
Paradoxical sleep is to slow wave sleep as ____ sleep is to ___ sleep
REM; Stage 4
Feli has been asleep for 3 hours. As he continues to sleep, we can expect that ____ sleep will diminish and that ____ sleep will increase in duration
Stage 4; REM
Stimulants are to caffeine as depressants are to
Insomnia is a disorder involving
recurring difficulty staying or falling asleep
Which of the following sleep disorders would be the most incapacitating for a commercial airline pilot
Mr. Dayton occasionally stops breathing while sleeping. He wakes up to snort air for a few seconds before falling back to sleep. Mrs. Dayton complains that her husband snores. Clearly, Mr. Dayton suffers from
Sleep Apnea
research studies of the content of dreams indicate that
Females are more likely than males to dream about members of the opposite sex
Freud called the remembered story line of a dream its ___ content
Those who study hypnosis agree that it is a state of
Heightened Suggestibility
Hypnotized people are more likely to perform dangerous acts than those who are asked to simulate hypnosis. This fact is most consistent with
Social influence theory
Alcohol, Marijuana, cocaine, and a wide variety of other chemical agents that alter perceptions and moods are called
Psychoactive drugs
Drug tolerance refers to the
Reduced effect of a drug resulting form its regular usage
The divided- Consciousness theory of hypnosis states that hypnosis involves
Alcohol consumption ___ sympathetic nervous system activity, and ____ self awareness
Decreases; Decreases
What drug is classified as a stimulant
Addictions to ___ are often overcome without professional help
Alcohol, nicotine and heroine
LSD is most likely to produce