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69 terms

Chapter 6

A Short Course in Medical Terminology 2nd Ed.
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fasci/o
fibrous membrane
fibr/o
fiber
hemi-
half
kine-
movement
kinesi/o
movement
ligament/o
ligament
muscul/o
muscle
my/o
muscle
para-
beside, beyond, near
-paresis
partial or incomplete paralysis
-plegia
paralysis
quadri-
four
sthen/o
strength
tend/o
tendon
tendin/o
tendon
ton/o
tone
smooth muscle
location: walls of hollow organs, vessels, respiratory passageways
characteristics: tapered at each end, single nucleus, non-striated
control: involuntary
cardiac muscle
location: wall of heart
characteristics: branching networks, single nucleus, lightly striated
control: involuntary
skeletal muscle
location: attached to bones
characteristics: long and cylindrical, multi-nucleated, heavily striated
control: voluntary
antagonist
something opposing or resisting the action of another
fascia
fibrous sheath of connective tissue that covers a muscle
ligament
a type of muscle tissue connecting bones, cartilage, or other tissue structures
myocardial muscle
heart muscle
prime mover
muscle that has the principal responsibility for a given movement
striated
adj. describing skeletal muscle
tone
tonicity
tension present in resting muscles
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
(Lou Gehrig Disease)
a progressive degenerative of the nerve tracts of the spinal cord, causing muscular atrophy
asthenia
weakness
atonia
flaccidity; lack of muscle tone; relaxation of muscle
atrophy
wasting of the muscles
epicondylitis
inflammation of the tissues around the elbow
(golfer or tennis elbow)
fibromyalgia
a chronic disorder characterized by widespread aching and stiffness of muscles and soft tissues and fatigue
hamstring injury
strain or tear of the hamstring muscle group
hemiparesis
slight paralysis of one side of the body
hemiplegia
total paralysis of one side of the body
kinesialgia
pain resulting from movement
muscular dystrophy
group of inherited muscle disorders that cause muscle weakness without affecting the nervous system
myasthenia gravis
an immunological disorder characterized by flucyuating weakness, esp. of the facial and external eye muscle
myocele
hernia of a muscle
myodynia
pain in a muscle
myoma
benign neoplasm of a muscle tissue
myoparesis
weakness of partial paralysis of a muscle
myositis
inflammation of the muscle
myospasm
involuntary contraction of a muscle
paraplegia
paralysis of both legs and the lower part of the body
periostitis
inflammation of the periosteum or the covering that surrounds the bone
plantar fasciitis
inflammation of the plantar fascia causing heel pain
quadriplegia
paralysis of all four limbs
rotator cuff injury
inflammation caused by overuse
shin splint
term given to describe pain in the anterior portion of the lower leg during running, walking, and other similar activities
tenalgia
pain in a tendon
tendonitis
inflammation of a tendom
kinesiology
study of muscle motion
kinesiologist
a specialist in kinesiology
myology
study of muscles
orthopedic
pertaining to orthopedics or the study of the musculoskeletal system
electromyography
records the strength of muscle contractions by means of electrical stimulation
myectomy
excision of part of a muscle
skeletal muscle relaxants
medications used to reduce muscle spasms
tendopasty
surgical repair of a tendon
tenorrhaphy
suturing of a tendon
tenotomy
incision into a tendon
CTD
cumulative trauma disorder
DMD
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
DTR
deep tendon reflex
EMG
electromyography
IM
intramuscular
MG
myasthenia gravis
ROM
range of motion