Maternal and fetal nutrition
Terms in this set (46)
What are the caloric needs of a pregnant woman?
Requirement exceeds prepregnancy needs by 300 calories/day (from 2200 kcal/day to 2500 kcal/day)
What is the purpose of changing the caloric needs of a pregnant woman?
To support maternal-fetal tissue synthesis, to meet increased basal metabolic needs, to provide optimal use of protein and tissue growth
What are ways to stay nutritionally fit during pregnancy?
Increase caloric intake to 2400 kcal/day, increase protein intake to 60 g/day, incorporate sources of linoleic acid into the diet, get plenty of folic acid (800 mcg/day), drink fluoridated water or take fluoride supplement, increase sodium intake to 2469 mg/day
Protein requirements for pregnancy
Requirements exceed prepregnancy needs by 14 to 16 g/day (from 44 to 46 g/day to 60 g/day)
What are fat requirements for pregnant women?
20% to 35% of woman's daily intake
What is a good source for fat in pregnant women?
What is linoleic acid use for?
Essential for new cell growth
Where is linoleic acid found?
found in vegetable oils, such as corn, olive, peanut, and saltflower oils
What are the vitamin requirements for pregnant women?
Intake of all vitamins should be increased
Why are the vitamin requirements for pregnant women changed?
Necessary for tissue synthesis and energy production
Intake of a varied, healthy diet usually supplies the requirements for all of the vitamins except...
Why is folic acid important?
Promotes fetal growth and prevents anemia
What should the folic acid intake for a pregnant woman be?
400 to 800 mcg/day
What are good sources for folic acid?
Green leafy vegetables; eggs; milk; and whole-grain breads
What are the mineral requirements for pregnant woman?
Increase intake of all minerals including iodine, calcium, phosphorous, and zinc
Why is drinking fluoridated water important?
Aid in tooth formation
What mineral is the average American diet does not produce enough of?
Iron which increases the risk of iron deficiency anemia
How much iron should a pregnant woman have per day?
30 to 60 mg/day
How much sodium should a pregnant woman have per day?
69 mg more than daily requirement of 2400 mg...2469 mg per day
Too little sodium can cause...
hormonal and biochemical changes
Too much sodium can cause...
Hypertension by altering fluid and electrolyte balance
What is an important determinant of fetal growth?
Weight gain and that essential nutrients are increased
Insufficient weight gain increases risk of:
preterm, low birth weight (less than 5.5 lb), fetal and newborn mortality and morbidity
Excessive weight gain increases risk of:
Fetal macrosomia, prolonged labor, birth trauma, need for cesarean birth
Pattern of weight gain for first trimester
(up to 14 weeks): 3.5 lbs
Pattern of weight gain for second trimester
(14-28 weeks): 1 lb/week
How much weight should a woman with a low BMI (less than 19.8) gain?
How much weight should a woman with a high BMI (more than 29) gain?
Obesity increases the incidence of:
Gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, cesarean birth, largeo-for-gestational-age infants
Who are at risk for inadequate weight gain?
Young, unmarried, low income, poorly educated, poor general health, receive insufficient prenatal care,african-americans, southeast asians, hispanic women
What are carbohydrates for?
energy and fiber
What are proteins for?
metabolism, tissue synthesis, and tissue repair...muscle development
What are fats for?
energy and fat soluble vitamins...essential fatty acids vital for fetal brain development, fetal visual function, and placenta formation.
Fat soluble vitamins...
A, D, E, and K: Stored, less likely to be deficient. In fact, can be toxic if excessive. Ie: too much Vit A can lead to fetal defects.
Water soulbe vitamins...
B-6, B-12, C, Folic Acid, Thiamine, Riboflavin, and Niacin: NOT stored, need daily
What is the purpose of folic acid?
decreases the occurrence of neural tube defects. Need at least 600 mcg/day. PNV's contain 1 mg of Folic Acid.
What is the purpose of iron?
1000 mcg/day, increased RBC's, fetal requirements (priority!), most difficult to get proper amount with daily intake. Supplements usually needed.
What is the purpose of calcium?
Bone/Teeth formation, should be taken with Vit D, caffeine increases excretion
What is the purpose of sodium?
Needs increased to provide for expanded blood volume and fetal needs, high sodium foods should be limited
What is the purpose of water?
Expanded blood volume, should drink at least eight 8-oz glasses/day
How much whole grains should a pregnant woman have?
What does vegetables and fruits provide?
Vitamins, minerals, fiber
How much protein should the pregnant woman intake? Good sources?
7 oz/day...Fish is an excellent source of protein as well as essential fatty acids) but must be cautious as they can contain mercury
What sources of protein should a pregnant woman avoid?
Cold cuts, hot dogs, deli meats, meat spreads, some cheeses, as well as raw or undercooked meat and poultry may contain listeria, which may cause abortion, or stillbirth.
What are the factors that influence nutrition?
Maternal age, nutritional knowledge, exercise
What are the challenges to meeting the nutritional needs?
Lactose intolerance, nausea and vomiting, anemia, abnormal pre-pregnancy weight, eating disorders, food cravings: Pica, multiparity/multifetal pregnancy, substance abuse (smoking, caffeine, alcohol, drugs)