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93 terms

Computer Science 2 Exam Review

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bar code
An identification code that consists of a set of vertical lines and spaces of different widths
optical resolution
The actual photographed resolution of a digital camera
turnaround
Many companies use OCR characters on a(n) ____ document, which is a document that is returned to the company that creates and sends it.
resolution
The number of horizontal and vertical pixels in a display device
ergonomic
A(n) ____ keyboard has a design that reduces the chance of wrist and hand injuries.
input
Any data and instructions into the memory of a computer
MICR
Used almost exclusively by the banking industry for check processing
stylus
A small metal or plastic device that looks like a tiny ink pen but uses pressure instead of ink
scanner
A retinal ____ works similarly to an iris recognition system, but instead scans patterns of blood vessels in the back of the retina.
video
A(n) ____ conference in a meeting between two or more geographically separated people who use a network or the Internet to transmit audio and video data.
ADA
Requires any company with 15 or more employees to make reasonable attempts to accommodate the needs of physically challenged workers
mouse
A pointing device that fits comfortably under the palm of the hand
OCR
A technology that involves reading typewritten, computer-printed, or hand-printed characters from ordinary documents and translating the images into a form that the computer can process
ergonomics
The goal of ____ is to incorporate comfort, efficiency, and safety in the design of items in the workplace.
recognition
Voice ____ is the computer's capability of distinguishing spoken words.
user response
A series of instructions that tells a computer what to do and how to do it
OMR
A technology that reads hand-drawn marks such as small circles or rectangles
biometrics
The technology of authenticating a person's identity by verifying a personal characteristic
pixels per inch
Manufacturers often use ____ to represent the resolution of a digital camera like the one shown in the accompanying figure.
plotters
Use a row of charged wires to draw an electrostatic pattern on specially coated paper and then fuse toner to the pattern
pixel
A single point in an electronic image
response
An important measure of LCD monitors is the ____ time, which is the time in milliseconds that it takes to turn a pixel on or off.
display
An output deivice that conveys text, graphics, and video information
interactive whiteboard
A touch-sensitive device, resembling a dry-erase board that displays the image on a connected computer screen
toner
A printer creates images using a laser beam and powdered ink called ____.
laser printer
A high-speed, high-quality non impact printer
hard copy
Printed information that exists physically and is a more permanent form of output
plasma monitor
A display that uses gas plasma technology, which sandwiches a layer of gas between two glass plates
printout
A hard copy is also called a ____.
output device
Any hardware component that conveys information to one or more people
if the device breaks down, users lose all four functions
The disadvantage of a multi-function peripheral is ____.
output
Data that has been processed into a useful form
disk cache
Consists of memory chips that store frequently accessed items
bit
The smallest unit of data a computer can process
backup
A duplicate of a file, program, or disk that can be used in case the original is lost, damaged, or destroyed
thumb drive
A flash memory storage device that plugs in a USB port on a computer or portable device
all of the above
An advantage of portable hard disks and removable hard disks is that users can ____.
formatting
The process of dividing a disk into tracks and sectors, so the operating system can store and locate data and information on the disk
CD-R
A multi-session optical disc on which users can write but not erase their own items such as text, graphics, and audio
sequential
Tape storage requires ____ access, which refers to reading or writing data consecutively.
CD-RW
Overcomes the major disadvantage of CD-R disks, which is being able to write on them only once
hard disks
Use magnetic particles to store data, instructions, and information on a disk's surface
tape
All of the following use direct access EXCEPT ____.
smart card
Similar in size to a credit or an ATM card; stores data on a thin microprocessor embedded in the card
storage device
The computer hardware that records and/or retrieves items to and from storage media
capacity
The number of bytes (characters) a storage medium can hold
cloud storage
An Internet service that provides storage to computer users
DVD-ROM
A type of optical disc that users can read but not write or erase
RAID
A group of two or more integrated hard disks
platter
Made of aluminum, glass, or ceramic and is coated with an alloy material that allows items to be recorded magnetically on its surface
storage
Holds data, instructions, and information for future use
filter
A program that removes or blocks certain items from being displayed
spooling
A process that sends documents to a buffer instead of sending them immediately to the printer
multiuser operating system
Enables two or more users to run programs simultaneously
graphical user interface (GUI)
Users interact with menus and visual images such as icons, buttons, and other objects to issue commands
user name
A unique combination of characters, such as letters of the alphabet or numbers, that identifies one specific user
computer virus
Describes a potentially damaging computer program that affects, or infects, a computer negatively by altering the way the computer works without the user's knowledge or permission
operating system and utility programs
Two types of system software
hacker
Someone who tries to access a computer or network illegally
worm
Malware that copies itself repeatedly
Trojan horse
Malware that hides within or looks like a legitimate program
booting
The process of starting or restarting a computer
BIOS
Firmware that contains a computer's start-up instructions
uninstaller
A utility that removes a program as well as any associated entries in the system files
plug and play
Means the operating system automatically configures new devices as users install them
user interface
Controls how users enter data and instructions into a computer and how information is displayed on the screen
system software
Consists of the programs that control or maintain the operations of a computer and its devices
malware
Software that acts without a user's knowledge and deliberately alters a computer's operations
restore
In the event that a backup file is used, a ____ program reverses the process and returns backed up files to their original form.
folder
A specific named location on a storage medium that contains related documents
multitasking
A single user/____ operating system allows a single user to work on two or more programs that reside in memory at the same time.
spyware
A program placed on a computer without the user's knowledge or consent that secretly collects information about the user
password
A private combination of characters associated with a user name that allows access to certain computer resources
operating system
A set of programs containing instructions that coordinate all the activities among computer hardware resources
personal firewall
A utility that detects and protects a computer from unauthorized intrusions
screen saver
Causes a monitor's screen to display a moving image or blank screen if not keyboard or mouse activity occurs for a specified period of time
Ethernet
A network standard that specifies no central computer or device on the network should control when data can be transmitted
all of the above
Computer communications describes a process in which two or more computers or devices transfer ____.
communications channels
Two examples of ____ are cable television lines and telephone lines.
network
A collection of computers and devices connected together via communications devices and transmission media
communications device
Any typed of hardware capable of transmitting data, instructions, and information between a sending device and a receiving device
cybercafe
A coffeehouse or restaurant that provides computers with Internet access to its customers
groupware
A software application that helps groups of people work together on projects and share information over a network
Wi-Fi
Identifies any network based on the 802.11 family of standards
peer-to-peer network
A simple, inexpensive network that typically connects fewer than 10 computers
router
A communications device that connects multiple computers together and transmits data to its correct destination on the network
hot spot
A wireless network that provides Internet connections to mobile computers and other devices
ring network
A network topology in which a cable forms a closed loop, with all computers and devices arranged along it
star network
All of the computers and devices (nodes) on the network connect to a central device
wide area network (WAN)
A network that covers a large geographic area, such as a city, country, or the world, using a communications channel that combines many types of media
bandwidth
The amount of data, instructions, and information that can travel over a communications channel
client/server network
One or more computers act as a server and the other computers on the network request services from the server
SMS
Users type and send short text messages on a smart phone or mobile device