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Chapter 14

Vocabulary
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virus
an infectious agent made up of a core of nucleic acid and a protein coat
capsid
the protein coat around the core of nucleic acid
envelope
an additional protective coating usually made of lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates
host
an organism that shelters and nourishes something
lytic cycle
The viral replication process that rapidly kills a host cell
lysogenic cycle
a type of replication in which a virus does not immediately kill a host cell
prophage
A viral DNA segment that is inserted in a bacterial cell's chromosome
retrovirus
a virus that contains an RNA core that replicates by first transcribing its RNA into DNA
viroid
a simple stand of pure RNA
prion
a protein molecule that can cause disease in animas
vaccination
the process of injecting a person with a harmless--weakened or dead--form of a virus
plasmids
Smaller pieces of circular DNA contained in bacteria
endospores
dehydrated cells formed when living conditions become unfavorable in monerans
binary fission
a process in which the chromosome of a unicellular organism is continually replicated, after which the cell divides forming two identical cells
conjunction
the process of exchanging genetic material through cell-to-cell contact
archaebactria
the group of monerans that are often found living in harsh environments
eubacteria
the so-called true bacteria that includes all other bacteria
aerobes
organisms that use oxygen during respiration
anaerobes
organisms that do not use oxygen during respiration