59 terms

Skeletal and Muscular System

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Skeletal
The bones, cartilage, and connective tissue that hold bones together make up the ________________________ system.
1. Protections
2.movement
3. Storage
4. Blood cell formation
Functions of the Skeletal System:
1.2. 3. 4.
1. ribs
2. vertebrae
3. skull
Your heart and lungs are protected by ___________, your spinal
cord is protected by _________________, and your brain is protected by the ______________.
1. minerals
2. fat
Bones store ___________________ that help your nerves and muscles function properly. Long bones store _______ that can be used for energy.
movement
Skeletal muscles pull on bones to produce __________________.
marrow
Some of your bones are filled with a special material that makes blood cells. This material is called ___________________.
1. living
2. tissues
Bones are ____________ organs made of different _______________.
osteoblasts
Bones are made of cells called _____________________.
groups
Osteoblasts work in _____________ to form the living part of the bone.
calcium
Those groups of cells deposit minerals, such as _________________, into the mineralized portion of the bone.
marrow
_________________ is the soft tissue inside of bone.
2
There are __ kinds of marrow.
red
_________ marrow- makes red and white blood cells
yellow
_______________ marrow- stores fat
cartilage
___________________ - Soft tissue of your skeletal system
cartilage
When you are born, you don't have much true bone, it's mostly ______________________.
bone
As you grew, cartilage was replaced by ___________.
ends
Some cartilage covers the _________ of bones for cushioning.
1. never
2. nose
3. ear
Some cartilage is ________________ replaced by bone (end of your ____________, top of your ___________)
joints
The place where two or more bones meet are ________________.
1. gliding
2. ball and socket
3. hinge
3 types of joints
ligaments
Joints are held together by ______________________.
gliding joint
bones glide over each other for some flexibilty (Examples: wrist and hand )
ball and socket joint
allows movement in all directions (Ex: hip and shoulders)
hinge joint
allows backward and forward motion, or flexion and extension (Ex: knee and elbow)
ligaments
Joints are held together by ______________________.
connective tissue
Ligaments are strong bands of _______________________________.
bone
bone
Ligaments connect _____________ to _____________.
cushion
Remember, cartilage covers the end of bones to provide __________________ where bones meet.
dislocated joint
_______________________________- one or more bones moves out of place
sprain
________________- a ligament is stretched too far or torn
fracture
_______________ or Broken Bone (no explanation needed)
osteoporosis
_________________________- a disease in which bones become less dense, become more weak, and break easily
muscular
Muscles that allow you to move make up the _______________ system.
collapse
If all of your muscles rested at the same time, you would ____________.
smooth
_______________ muscle- in the digestive tract and walls of blood vessels
cardiac
_______________ muscle- found only in the heart
skeletal
_______________ muscle- attached to your bones for movement and helps protect inner organs
voluntary
____________________ muscle action is under your control
involuntary
_______________________ muscle action is NOT under your control
either
Some actions could be _____________ voluntary or involuntary.
1. move
2. impulse
3. brain
4. skeletal muscle
5. contract
6. pulls
When you want to ____________ (type, walk, talk, etc), a chain of events occurs extremely fast to make that motion happen.
1- A nerve ____________travels from your ____________ to the _______________ _______________.
2- The muscle cells ________________, or get shorter.
3-The muscle contraction ____________ the bones in the direction they need to move.
connective
muscle
bone
Tendons are tough __________________tissue that attach _______________ to _____________.
contracts
closer
When a muscle that connects to bones ___________________, or shortens, the bones are pulled _______________ to each other.
pull
pairs
Because muscles only _________, not push, they work in __________.
bends
straightens
Usually one muscle ___________ and the other __________________.
flexor
A muscle that bends a part of your body is a ______________.
extensor
A muscle that straightens a part of your body is an _______________.
biceps
triceps
. In the arm, ______________ are flexors and ______________ are extensors.
longer
tired
Exercise helps muscles keep their strength and endurance
a. endurance means working ________________ without getting __________.
2
______types of exercise
resistance
strength
own
______________________exercise- working against the resistance, or weight, of an object can maintain or build muscle _________________.
Example: pull ups use your _______ weight for resistance
aerobic
heart
jogging
cycling
__________________ exercise-steady, moderately intense activity strengthens the ___________ and increases endurance Example: walking, ______________ , swimming, ______________
strain
______________ - Muscle or tendon is overstretched or torn
tendonitis
______________________- tendon becomes inflamed due to over-exercising without enough time to heal
anabolic steroids
Some people take _______________ _________________ to increase muscle strength, but they can damage the heart, liver, and kidneys and cause high blood pressure.
2
_____kinds of bone tissue
compact
_______________ Bone
a. Rigid and dense with no open spaces
b. Contains tiny canals where blood vessels
are located
spongy bone
_______ Bone
a. Has many open spaces
b. provides strength and support for the bone