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science test chapter 3
Terms in this set (36)
large volume of air in which temperature and humidity are nearly the same in different locations at the same altitude
their temperature and humdity
what do air masses bring to new locations?
maritime tropical air mass
water, warm air mass
continental tropical air mass
land, warm air mass
maritime polar air mass
water, cold air mass
continental polar air mass
land, cold air mass
they move away from regions where they form and they form according to the global patterns of winds.
how do air masses move?
west to east
how do air masses move in the united states?
- move in quickly
- the cold air pushes the warm air upwards
- makes stormy weather
explain cold fronts
- the warm air pushes against the cold air and rises above the cold air
- makes gentle rain
explain warm fronts
- the warm air and cold air have equal force and push against each other
- the weather stays the same until one takes over
explain stationary fronts
- air sinks down slowly and spreads out toward areas of lower pressure
- when it stays in the same spot for a long time an air mass may form
- it brings calm weather, clear skies, and it warms up a little bit
explain high pressure systems
- develops where there is a center of low pressure
- air moves around and inward toward lowest pressure, then to higher altitudes
- the rising air makes stormy weather and the air rotates in a counterclockwise direction.
explain low pressure systems
tropical low pressure system with high winds
low pressure system that starts near the equator and has strong winds.
warm ocean water provides energy that turns a low pressure center into a storm. As, water evaporates from the ocean, energy moves from the ocean water into the air. this energy makes warm air rise faster. tall cumulonimbus clouds and strong winds develop. the Coriolis effect bends the winds into a spiral and blow faster until they become the center of a storm system.
how do hurricanes form?
westward towards trade winds
which way do tropical storms usually move?
outside of the eye, the air swirls upward very quickly. it is the wall of stormy weather
the small center of a hurricane that's clear and calm because air is moving downward
can pound a coast with huge waves, heavy rain, and strong winds. they can lift cars, uproot trees, and tear apart buildings. hurricanes can also produce tornadoes. they can make flash floods or produce a huge amount of waves called a storm surge.
what are effects of hurricanes?
blinding snowstorms with strong winds
lake-effect snow storms
some heaviest snows fall in areas east and south of the great lakes
rain falls onto freezing cold ground refreezes and covers surfaces with slippery ice
- rising humid air forms a cumulus cloud and the water vapor makes energy when it condenses into cloud droplets. this energy increases the air motion. the cloud builds until it is a cumulonimbus cloud.
- ice particles form in the low temps near the top of the cloud and as the ice particles grow large, the will fall and pull down cold air with them. this strong downdraft brings heavy rain or hail
- the downdraft can spread out and block more warm air from moving upward into the cloud. the storm slows down and ends
how do thunderstorms form?
flash floods, winds, hail, and lightning
what are effects of thunderstorms?
what can form in a thunderstorm when a funnel cloud stretches, picks up dust from the ground, and the air swirls?
a scientist who studies weather
locate clouds and measure their hights
airplanes and ships
can carry instrument packages that make measurements wherever they go
hold instruments that measure main weather data
orbit earth above the atmosphere. images can show weather data
make important measurements of the air at different altitudes as they carry instruments high into the stratosphere
record the weather fair from cities. they also measure conditions int he ocean that affect the atmosphere
a line that connects places that have the same air pressure. lines are close together to show big differences in air pressure and strong winds. Opposite, when they are far apart.
cold air mass takes over a warm air mass. the weather is stormy because it is associated with a low pressure system
electrical charges build up near the tops and bottoms of clouds as ice pellets move through the clouds. Then, a charge sparks from one part of the cloud and the ground. The spark of electricity is lightning. this heats the air. this fast heating makes a sharp wave of air that travels away from the lightning. you hear a crack of thunder
explain lightning and thunder
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