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a chemical substance that destroys disease-causing microorganisms with minimal damage to host tissues
are compounds that destroy pathogenic microorganisms or inhibit their growth and are used in the treatment of diseases
microbial products or their derivatives that can kill susceptible microorganisms or inhibit their growth
Why are fungus, protozoa and helminthic infections more difficult to treat?
because they have eukaryotic cells
When does superinfections occur
superinfections occur when a pathogen develops resistance to the drug being used or when normally resistant microbiota multiply excessively
Cephalosporins do two things
1) inhibit cell wall synthesis
2) are used against penicillin-resistant strains
4 antibacterial antibiotics
penicillin, penicillinase resistant penicillin, the monbactam aztreonam, polypeptide antibiotics
5 inhibitors of protein synthesis
chloramphenicol, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, macrolides, oxamoldinones, antisense nucleic acids
what is the method of action of erythromycin
inhibit protein synthesis by binding to the bacterial ribosomes
what is erythromycin effective against (3)
gram positive bacteria, mycoplasma, few gram negative bacteria
define antisense nucleic acids
designed to be complementary to specific RNA molecules of pathogens and thus block protein synthesis
why are weak organic bases used as antiviral drugs
they can neutralize the acidic environment of phagolysosomes and thereby prevent viral uncoating
What do quinolones and fluoroquinolones inhibit
DNA synthesis for treatment of urinary tract infections
disadvantage of DNA RNA inhibiting antibiotics
may interfere with human DNA and RNA and be toxic and develops antibiotic resistace
how do you block attaachment of viruses to host cells
by peptide and sugar analogs of either attachment or receptor proteins
typically occurs when drugs are similar in structure so the bacteria resists all of them
an example of synergism within drugs
penicillin and streptomycin are used for bacterial endocarditis. one damages the cell wall so the other can enter
an example of an antagonistic combination of drugs
penicillin (works on growing bacteria) and tetracycline (stops growth)
Three pathogens that have low-permeability membrane barriers
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, enterococcus
7 gram negative bacteria with R-factor plasmids
E. coli, Proteus, Serratia, Enterobacter, Salmonella, Shigella and pseudomonas
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