216 terms

Psych 111- Exam 2 (EA)

Classical Conditioning
Pavlov- an organism learns to associate two different stimuli
ex. dog and bell simulation
Unconditioned Stimulus
Elicits an unconditioned response
ex. food
ex. electric shock to dog
Unconditioned Response
Response which is automatically produced
ex. salivate
ex. jump from shock
Conditioned Stimulus
Originally neutral stimulus that produces a response after being paired with an unconditioned stimulus
ex. bell
ex. metronome
Conditioned Response
Response elicited by the conditioned stimulus
ex. salivate to bell
ex. jump with metronome
Repeat the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus and the conditioned response disappears over time
Spontaneous Recovery
After a response has been extinguished it may reappear after some time after being exposed to the conditioned stimulus
High Order Conditioning
Pairing a neutral stimulus with a conditioned stimulus will create another weaker conditioned response
**more likely to show extinction
-ex. food with bell, bell with light
Stimulus Generalization
After a stimulus becomes a conditioned response, other similar stimuli may elicit a similar response
Stimulus Discrimination
One learns to recognize the difference between similar stimuli
-ex. fire alarm v. smoke alarm
Anticipatory Nausea and Vomiting (ANV)
Classically conditioned response
-Chemotherapy (US)
-Nausea (UR)
-Treatment room/needles (CS)
-Nausea in response to room (CR)

These patients do not respond to anti nausea medication, but do respond to behavioral treatments
-ex. Taste aversions seem to be particularly sensitive to learning. May be evolutionarily determined.
Operant Conditioning
Behavior is dependent on the consequences
Studied cats
Law of Effect- a satisfying result strengthens/increases a behavior
People and animals tend to repeat behaviors which have a positive consequence and decrease behaviors which have a negative consequence
Neutral Consequence
Not more or less likely to see behavior patterns change
Anything that makes a response more likely
Anything that decreases the likeliness of a response
Primary Reinforcers
Reinforce by satisfying biological needs: food, sex, water
Secondary Reinforcers
Satisfy through association with primary reinforcers: money, praise, grades
Positive Punishment
Adding a stimulus to decrease a response (spanking, washing mouth with soap)
Positive Reinforcement
Adding a stimulus to increase a response (giving treats)
Negative Punishment
Decreasing a stimulus to decrease a response (no tv, no dessert)
Negative Reinforcement
Decreasing a stimulus to increase a response (mom stop nagging)
Effect of Reinforcement/Punishment
Most effective when presented directly after the behavior
Escape Learning
Escape learning occurs to terminate an unpleasant stimulus such as annoyance or pain, thereby negatively reinforcing the behavior. For example, to persuade a rat to jump from a platform into a pool of water, you might electrify the platform to mildly shock the rat. The rat jumps due to escape learning, since it jumps into the water to escape the electric shock.
Avoidance learning
You can transform escape learning into avoidance learning if you give a signal, such as a tone, before the unwanted stimulus. If the rat receives a cue before the shock, after a few trials, it will jump before it gets shocked. The rat will continue to jump when it gets the signal, even if the platform is no longer electrified.
Learning Schedules: Continuous
Reward/punishment occurs each time the behavior occurs
Learning Schedules: Intermittent/Partial
Reward/Punishment occurs when a response occurs only some of the time
Learning Schedules: Ratio schedules
Deliver reinforcement after a certain fixed number of responses
Fixed Ratio Schedule
reinforcement after a fixed number of responses
Variable Ratio Schedule
reinforcement after some average number of responses
Learning Schedules: Interval schedules
reinforcement after a certain amount of time has passed and the desired behavior has occurred
Fixed Interval
reinforcement after a fixed amount of time has passed since the last reinforcement (5 min)
Variable Interval
Reinforcement occurs if a variable amount of time has passed since the previous reinforcement (on average 5 minutes, but could be 3 or 7)
Effectiveness of reinforcing a response
response should be reinforced intermittently, making the response more difficult to extinguish
Intermittent reinforcements: Shaping
-reinforcing behavior tendencies in a desired direction
-uses successive approximation: reinforce responses that are increasingly similar to the desired behavior
-ex. pigeon turn in a circle with reinforcement
Observational Learning
believe there is a higher level of cognitive process to how we learn, impacts attitudes, beliefs and expectations
-children learn and then imitate behaviors
-ex. TV violence
Bandura's 4 components to Observational Learning
Attention- being aware of others' behavior
Retention-having the capacity to store what you have observed
Reproduction- behaviorally imitate what has been stored in memory
Motivation- Determined by a belief that the behavior will bring about a desired response
Bandura's Doll
Children who watched aggressive behavior will be more likely to be more aggressive with the doll
Lassie Study
Observational Learning can have pro-social benefits
Flashbulb Memories
Dramatic positive or negative memory
-memories of traumatic events are more vivid but details can be distorted
ability to retrieve information which has been learned earlier
ability to identify previously encountered information
effort is saved in having learned something before
Model of Memory: Computer
Memory and mind are like a computer, encoding is how to put information in, retain, store and retrieve
Shallow processing/structural encoding
emphasizes the physical structure of the stimulus
-focus on what is looks like
Intermediate Processing/Phonemic Encoding
emphasizes what a word sounds like
Deep processing/semantic encoding
emphasizes the meaning of verbal input
Sensory Memory
-Retains for 1-2 seconds
-Acts as a holding bin
-0.5 seconds in visual subsystem
-decides if it is worth processing
Short Term Memory
-Holds limited amounts of information for up to 20/30 seconds
-Houses our working memory
-Pattern recognition: compares to information already in our Long term memory
Magic Number
number of items we are able to hold in our short term memory
-historically 7 +/-2
-recently maybe closer to 4
Long Term Memory
-Longer storage for minutes to decades
-organized by semantic categories
Procedural memory
knowing "how"
-riding a bike, conditioned reflexes, implicit memories
Declarative Memory
knowing "that"
-semantic and episodic
Semantic Memory
facts, rules, concepts
Episodic Memory
experienced events, personal recollections (ex. first kiss, getting into michigan)
Prospective memory
remembering to perform actions in the future
Retrospective memory
remember events from the past or previously learned information
-ex. where did I park my car?
Primacy Effect
memory of beginning pieces of list
Recency Effect
memory of end pieces of the list
numbers mention increases memory
increases likelihood
increases memory
Effective encoding
how to best learn information
Maintenance rehearsal
retain in short term memory
-ex. repeat phone number
Elaborative rehearsal
know it, review, practice, give meanings
Visual Imagery
create visual images to represent words/concepts to remember
Method of loci
match up existing visual images with concepts
systematic strategies for remembering information, memory tricks, useful tools to aid memory
Dual-Coding Theory
memory is enhanced by using both semantic and visual codes since either can lead to recall
Chase and Simon Research
Expert, intermediate, novice
-expert knowledge helps memory of relevant but not irrelevant information
Eyewitness Testimony
-People tend to fill in missing information
-How one words things can impact memories
-errors are greater when the ethnicity of the subjects is different from the witness
-children and adults can report accurately as well as be influenced in their recall
Ineffective Encoding
we don't remember it in the first place
Decay Theory
memory fades with time
-most recent version of the memory is saved
Retroactive Interference
old information interferes with new
Motivated Forgetting
painful memories blocked from consciousness (Freud)
Cue Dependent Forgetting
forget because you haven't figured out what you need to help remember (retrieval cues)
Retrieval Cues
context, back to the scene of the crime
refers to memory deficits
Retrograde amnesia
deficit in recalling events that happened before the onset of amnesia
Anterograde Amnesia
Deficit in learning after the onset of the disorder
Post-traumatic Amnesia
Range of cognitive impairments:
-memory loss following an accident
Childhood Amnesia
inability to remember things from the first years of life
clinical condition where the individual loses cognitive abilities and functioning to the degree in which it impedes normal activity and social relationships
Alzheimer's Disease Symptoms
Loss of memory for recent events and familiar tastes
-changes in cognitive functioning ultimately leading to a change in personality
-loss of ability to perform most simple functions
loss of ability to use language
loss of ability to carry out coordinated body movement
loss of ability to recognize familiar objects and faces
Alzheimer's Disease Causes
Formation of plagues or tangles in areas of the brain controlling memory or vital cognitive functioning
-diagnosis of alzheimer's usually done by exclusion because no one specific indicator
-historically done through autopsy for characteristic tangles/plagues central to the disease
Benjamin Whorf
linguistic relativity, one's language determines one's thoughts
-the language you use determines how you think about the world
-look at the eskimos and sees how they have so many different words for "snow", and therefore thought about snow in different ways
smallest units of sounds which can be distinguished, change in sound can alter meaning
-initial phonemes: "c"at or "b"at
-middle phonemes: b"i"t or b"a"t
smallest units of meaning in a language; phrases made up of morphemes
study of meaning of words/combinations/sentences
the structure of a language, underlying rules of order/function
Gleason Study
language rules are generative
Grammatical rules incorrectly generalized to "exception" cases
Language Acquisition Device
Humans possess an inborn language mechanism
-hard wired to sort input from 20-80 phonemes
-lose by 12 months
Surface Structure
particular words used
Deep Structure
notion of nouns, verbs, commands
Expressive Language
the ability to produce language
Receptive Language
the ability to comprehend, process and integrate the meaning of language
-children usually have a greater capacity for receptive speech
Stages in Language Development
-first words
-holophrases: simple words (ex. go, open)
-telegraphic speech: content word sentences (ex. mommy go)
-by age 6 learn average of 15 words per day, vocal of 8000-14000 words
Nonverbal Communication
-vocal intonation: stress, pitch, volume
-body language
-physical distance
-facial expressions
-some question language acquisition, but often sees similar cumulative vocabulary
-most research does not show cognitive limitations
-second language is learned best when younger at a "sensitive period" for language development
Behaviorist Theory
-based on modeling, imitation, exposure and reinforcement
Interactionist theory
both biology and experience make important contributions to language development
Nativist Theory
humans are neurologically prewired to learn language
-children who learn sign language learned it at the same rate as the children who learned spoken language
-critical period
an extension of perception and memory
-mental representations are formed, recalled and manipulated
Concepts and categories
objects are classified on the basis of their properties
a mental representation of a category
recognizing an object as a member of a group
we rate things based on their similarity to models or prototypes which represent the main characteristic of a group
Concepts are defined by a prototype or the most typical member of a "class"
-is a sparrow a bird?
-is a penguin a bird?
-is a bat a bird?
the process by which we generate and evaluate arguments
a methodical, step by step procedure for trying all possible alternatives to solve a problem
Inductive Reasoning
we reason from specific observations to general propositions
Deductive Reasoning
draw conclusions from a set of assumptions, the conclusion is true if the premise is true
form of deductive reasoning, consists of 2 premises and a conclusion
Problem Solving
transform one situation into another to meet a goal
-active efforts to achieve the goal
Problems inducing structure
relationships between numbers, words, symbols
Problems of arrangement
arrange the parts of a problem to satisfy a criterion
problems of transformation
need to carry out a sequence in order to achieve a specific goal
how decisions or problem solving is posed may change the decision making task
Hypothesis testing
50% success and fail rate
-make and test an educated guess about a problem/solution
Mental Stimulation
mental rehearsal of the steps needed to solve a problem
Mental Set
Tendency to stick to solutions which have worked in the past
Functional fixedness
our tendency to rely on a function for an object and ignore other possible uses
Confirmation bias
we seek to confirm what we already believe
Distraction by irrelevant information
people often get sidetracked and it detracts from effective problem solving
Unnecessary constraints
we put restrictions on our problem solving which don't exist
the sudden discovery of a correct solution following incorrect attempts based primarily on trial and error
-aha moment
Decision Making
evaluating alternatives and making choices among them
Compensatory decision models
allows attractive attributes to compensate for unattractive attributes
ex. cheapest nonstop flight
Noncompensatory decision models
do not allow some attributes to compensate for others
ex. booking cheapest ticket no matter what
shortcuts that guide us in decision making about probabilities
Availability Heuristic
decision making based on the fact that things which are easily recalled seem to be typical/common
ex. people hear of plane crash, less likely to buy plane ticket
Representative Heuristic
matching an object to a concept or category without processing how likely the fit may be
ex. person is a carpenter, wrestler, and painter and we are more likely to think this person is a male
defined by how we measure it
-combines verbal ability, problem solving skills and the ability to adapt and learn from life's everyday experiences
Alfred Binet
developed intelligence tests to identify slow learners
Mental Age
based on ability not chronological age
-flawed: a child with a mental age of 6 and chronological age of 5 would have the same IQ as a child with a mental age of 12 and chronological age of 10
Wechsler Intelligence Tests: WPPSI
Wechsler Intelligence Tests: WISC
Wechsler Intelligence Tests: WAIS
Wechsler Intelligence Tests
-results in a verbal IQ, performance IQ, and full scale IQ score
-based on norms for the population:
100 is the mean
85-115 is the normal range
The Flynn Effect
Steady gains in IQ scores cross culturally
More time in school, better educated parents, better nutrition, broader exposure through media
Wechsler's view of intelligence
The global capacity of a person to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his/her environment
Wechsler WAIS revisions
Verbal comprehension scale
perceptual reasoning scale
working memory scale
processing speed scale
Verbal Subtests
-concepts, ideas, experiences
-fund of information, culturally sensitive
-awareness of socially appropriate behavior, rules and roles
-verbal concept formation, level of abstraction
-concentration/attention, mathematic ability
-attention and rote memory
Performance Subtests
-visual organization and concentration
-perception and analysis of patterns
-imitative behavior and learning capacity
-perceptual reasoning
-processing speed
-perceptual reasoning
Rosenthal and Jacobson Study
-self-fulfilling prophecy: if we expect something to happen in a certain way our expectancies will make it so (Pygmalian Efffect)
ex. teachers expect kids with fake high IQ's to do well and they do
Intelligence Test with Children and Fake IQ's
young children are easier to change, have less developed reputations, may be more susceptible, and teachers of children in lower grades may differ from the teachers of older children
Stereotype Vulnerability
Anxiety may impair test performance of true ability because of an implicit or explicit expectations of inadequacy based on stereotypes
Difficult to design a truly culture free test
-Raven's progressive matrices
-Draw a person: positive correlation with intelligence
Conceptual Skills
language and literacy, money, time and number concepts, self-direction
Social Skills
interpersonal skills, social responsibility, self-esteem, gullibility, naiveté, social problem solving, and the ability to follow rules/obey laws and to avoid being victimized
Practical Skills
activities of daily living (personal care), occupational skills, healthcare, travel/transportation, schedules/routines, safety, use of money, telephones
Signs of Developmental Delays in Preschool Children: Language
pronunciation problems
slow vocabulary growth
lack of interest in storytelling
Signs of Developmental Delays in Preschool Children: Memory
trouble recognizing letters or numbers
difficulty remembering sequencing (days)
Signs of Developmental Delays in Preschool Children: Attention
difficulty sitting still or sticking to a task
Signs of Developmental Delays in Preschool Children: Motor Skills
Problem with self care skills (button, combing hair)
Reluctance to draw
Signs of Developmental Delays in Preschool Children: Other Functions
trouble learning left right
difficulty categorizing
difficulty reading faces/body language
Mild Retardation/Intellectual Disability
-IQ: 50-70 (85%)
-can acquire academic skills to 6th grade level
-fairly self-sufficient
-can live independently with community and social support
-a condition of limited mental ability, IQ lower than 70 on a traditional test, difficulty adapting to everyday life
Moderate Retardation/Intellectual Disability
-IQ: 35-50 (10%)
-can carry out work and self-care tasks with moderate supervision, typically acquire communication skills in childhood and are able to live and function successfully in the community in a supervised group home
Severe Retardation/Intellectual Disability
-IQ: 20-35 (4%)
-may master basic self-care skills and some communication with supervision
Profound Retardation/Intellectual Disability
-IQ: <20 (1%)
-little or no speech; high level of structure and supervision required; often unresponsive to training
Organic cause of retardation
over 100 single genetic traits can result in mental retardation
teratogens (fetal alcohol syndrome; poor nutrition, disease)
Down Syndrome
-trisomy 21
-physical features: small stature, low muscle tone, upward slant of the eyes
-increased risk for congenital heart defects, respiratory and hearing problems and thyroid conditions
-majority fall into the mild to moderate level of intellectual disability
-IQ: >130 (upper 2-3% of population)
-characteristics: master things earlier, teachers may not identify them correctly, may have exceptional potential in visual/performing arts, leadership traits or empathy
Terman: long term study of gifted individuals (longest study since 1921)
-1500 youngsters (average IQ = 150)
-found to be above average in height, weight, strength, physical health, emotional stability and social satisfaction throughout adulthood
-most are socially successful, above average in psychological adjustment
-gifted are different from profoundly gifted (IQ > 180), as these children may be more introverted and socially isolated
Spearman: Two Factor Theory of Intelligence (G and S)
G factor (general abilities): comprehension or spatial skills, verbal abilities
S factor (specific abilities): numerical reasoning, rote memory skills
Cattell: Two types of G Factor of intelligence
-fluid intelligence: innate skills not dependent on the environment, more biologically based
-crystallized intelligence: academic learning, ability to use information learned in problem solving, related to environment and experience
Sternberg's 3 facets of intelligence
-Practical intelligence: dealing with problems encountered in every day life
-Analytical intelligence: abstract reasoning, good test taking skills (people who love taking ACT, SAT)
-Creative Intelligence: generate new ideas
Gardner's Multiple Intelligence
Logical mathematical
Linguistic (fitting words together)
Musical (loves pitch and tone)
Spatial (loves putting luggage in car)
Bodily Kinesthetic (good at sports)
Interpersonal (sensitivity to others)
Intrapersonal (ability to read own emotions)
Naturalist (beauty of the flow of the river)
Emotional Intelligence
-ability to motivate oneself and control impulses
-persist in the face of frustration
-regulate moods to keep distress from overwhelming the ability to think
-is this study valid or reliable?
vigor and persistence of goal directed beaver, helps move us towards our goals
Evolutionary Theory
motivation plays a significant role in adaptation, social need to affiliate, share resources, provide protection, procreation
tendency for the body to want to maintain a state of constancy
Energy is necessary for maintenance and growth
-search for a balanced diet
primary structure of the brain which signals hunger and satiation
Lateral Hypothalamus
(near side)
-turns on hunger
-stimulation yields increased eating
-a lesion or damage can cause starvation
(lesion the lateral, become lean)
Ventromedial Hypothalamus
(lower, middle)
-turns the hunger off
-stimulation stops eating
-lesion or damage can cause voracious eating
Biological Factors impact eating behaviors
-genetics influence metabolism
-bodily sensations: growl, distension
-chemical signals to the body
-genetic mapping of "obesity genes"
Social Factors impact eating behaviors
-environmental influences on eating behaviors
-complex and multiply determined
-eat more in groups
-expectation and memory of meals
-social interactions
Psychological Factors impact eating behaviors
-thinking about food and what it "means"
-learned food habits/preferences
-memories associated with food
-belief and feelings regarding body image
-cultural variations: robust = higher class
-food as a "substitute" for love, sex
-currently based on BMI
-adult with BMI between 25-29.9 is overweight
-adult with BMI > 30 is considered obese
CDC report
-childhood obesity has more than tripled in the past 30 years
-percentage of children aged 6-11 years in the US who were obese increased 7% in 1980 to nearly 20% in 2008. Similarly, the percentage of adolescents aged 12-19 years who were obese increased from 5% o 18% over the same period
-in 2008, more than 1/3 of children and adolescents were overweight or obese
Having excess body weight for a particular height from fat, muscle, hone, water or a combination of these factors
having excess body fat
Overweight and obesity result "caloric imbalance"
too few calories expended for the amount of calories consumed, and are affected by various genetic, behavioral, and environmental factors
Health concerns related to being overweight or obese
-coronary heart disease
-type 2 diabetes
-sleep apnea and respiratory problems
3 main reasons for obesity rates in the US
-increased high fat, easily accessible junk food
-increased portion size
-increased sedentary lifestyle
-refusal to maintain body weight at or above a minimal normal weight for age and height
-body weight less than 85% of the expected weight is considered minimal
-an intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat
-distorted self-perception
-amenorrhea (body stops working effectively, may not get their period)
-peak age 14-18 > females
-6% fatality rate
Theories of Anorexia
-anxiety regarding maturation
-difficulty expressing aggression in high achieving families; often bright and capable
-difficult to treat because patients don't recognize it as a problem
-males increasing "obligatory runner"
-repeated episodes of bingeing followed by self-induced vomiting, laxatives or enemas
-1-3% of adolescent girls
-significant shame component
-more treatable because recognize problem
-often in normal weight range
-long term health issues: ulcers, hernias, hair loss, dental damage, electrolyte imbalances
-preference for those of the same or opposite sex
-heterosexual, bisexual, homosexual
Kinsey Survey
-identified sexual behaviors
-self-report data bias issues
-limited validity
-important beginning
Masters and Johnson
-Need to understand actual sexual responses
-need direct systematic observation/measures
-subjects: originally used prostitutes (question generalizabilty)
-recruited from the general public
-sample of men and women age 18-92
-took physiological measurements
-created various instruments of this study
Masters and Johnson Findings
-sexual response cycles predictable for men and women
1) excitement
2) plateau
3) orgasm
4) resolution
-males experience a refractory period
-prevalence rates of orgasm may vary for men and women (women may experience multiple orgasms although reports are that they reach orgasm less consistently)
-size does not matter
Gender differences in Human Sexuality
-males think about sex more and willing to engage in sexual activity with more casual partners
-males place more emphasis on youth and attractiveness
-females place more emphasis on intelligence and ability to provide and protect
-biological and environmental influences on sexuality
Sexual Orientation and the role of biology and the environment
-research support role of biology in sexual orientation
-more variation for women in sexual orientation
-homosexuality not considered a mental disorder since 1973
One thing we know about gay adolescence
high risk for suicide
4 functions we strive to affiliate
1) obtain positive stimulation in our lives
2) receive emotional support
3) gain attention
4) permit social comparison
-varies by individual
-increased need to affiliate in fear situations
Achievement Motivation
-what drives us to seek and reach goals, basic human motive to achieve
-motivation by success: thrill at mastery, sense of achievement
-motivated by fear of failure: fear of performing badly, increases anxiety
-Yerkes/Dodson: optimal levels of anxiety/performance
Assessment of achievement motivation
-thematic apperception tests (TAT) developed by Murray but used by McClelland
-projective test which looks at themes of achievement
-people high in achievement tend to work harder and more persistently, more future oriented, able to delay gratification for long term goals
Emotion: Cognitive component
-subjectvie conscious experience, includes an "appraisal" or evaluation of the situation
Emotion: Physiological component
-bodily arousal accompanies feeling states
-fight or flight
-assess with polygraph
Polygraph Tests
-records autonomic fluctuations
-hypothesis: when subjects lie noticeable changes in physiological indicators
-result: not always accurate, sensitive to those high on anxiety measures, less likely to identify those who lie without accompanying discomfort
Emotion: Behavioral component
-body language and facial expression
-six basic emotions generally able to identify: happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, disgust
Research on happiness
-strong predictors: love, marriage, work satisfaction
-weak predictors: money, intelligence, and attractiveness
Facial feedback proponents
-belief that facial expressions themselves can control emotion
Display rules
norms that regulate the appropriate expression of emotions
-culturally determined
-ex. making eye contact
James-Lange Theory of emotion
-conscious experience of emotion results from perception of arousal
-I am scared because I am running
Cannon-Bard Theory of emotion
-congnitive interpretations of a situation and response occur at approximately the same time
-I am running away and feel scared
Schachter's Two-Factor Theory of emotion
-people use physiological and cognitive factors to identify emotions
-search the environment for an explanation for reactions, look for external cues to help label emotions