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The World at War, 1939 - 1945
Terms in this set (64)
a political philosophy that glorifies the state above the individual by emphasizing the need for a strong central government led by a dictatorial ruler
Satisfying the demands of dissatisfied powers in an effort to maintain peace and stability.
Good Neighbor Policy
Franklin D. Roosevelt policy in which the U.S. pledged that the U.S. would no longer intervene in the internal affairs of Latin American countries. This reversed Teddy Roosevelt's Big Stick Policy.
1936, led by Senator Gerald Nye, revealed corruption of American arms manufacturers, some of whom had been supplying Fascist governments with weapons, others calling for entry to WWI
Neutrality Acts (1935, 1936, 1937)
..., series of laws that provided Americans could not ship weapons, loan money, travel on belligerent ships, extend credit, or deliver goods to any belligerent countries; they were high tide of isolationism, and all were repealed between 1939 to 1941.
"cash and carry"
policy adopted by the United States in 1939 to preserve neutrality while aiding the Allies. Britain and France could buy goods from the United States if they paid in full and transported them.
1939-Secret agreement between German leader Hitler and Soviet Leader Stalin not to attack one another and to divide Poland
Lend Lease Act
Approved by Congress in March 1941; The act allowed America to sell, lend or lease arms or other supplies to nations considered "vital to the defense of the United States." THIS REPLACED the "cash and carry" policy.
A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.
1941-Pledge signed by US president FDR and British prime minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII amd to work for peace after the war
Rape of Nanking
In late 1937, Japan defeated the Chinese city of Nanking. Chinese civilians were brutalized and thousands were killed. The event shocked Western powers and contributed to sanctions against Japan.
Signed between the Axis powers in 1940 (Italy, Germany and Japan) where they pledged to help the others in the event of an attack by the US
This general was premier of Japan during World War II while this man was dictator of the country. He gave his approval for the attack on Pearl Harbor and played a major role in Japan's military decisions until he resigned in 1944
Emperor who forced the Japanese government to surrender, which ended World War II
Dec. 7, 1941
Japan attacked Pearl Harbor
War Powers Act
After the attack on Pearl Harbor, Congress passed it, granting the President unprecedented authority
War Production Board
During WWII, FDR established it to allocated scarce materials, limited or stopped the production of civilian goods, and distributed contracts among competing manufacturers
Women's Auxiliary Army Corps. Women volunteering for the army would not be given the same rank, pay, or benefits as men who were doing the same thing as them., women who served in the US navy during WWII, Women's Airforce Service Pilots - civilian women who flew supplies to the military during WWII
Declared by President FDR; 1. Freedom of speech and expression; 2. Freedom of every person to worship in his own way; 3. Freedom from want; 4. Freedom from fear; used by FDR to justify a loan for Britain, if the loan was made, the protection of these freedoms would be ensured
was a famous painter of covers for magazines during WWII
Rosie the Riveter
A propaganda character designed to increase production of female workers in the factories. It became a rallying symbol for women to do their part.
National War Labor Board
During WWII it mediated disputes between management and laborers to prevent strikes
Double V campaign
Black-Americans' campaign to earn victory in the home front (fight discrimination at home) and victory overseas (fighting the enemy Axis powers)
A. Philip Randolph
..., America's leading black labor leader who called for a march on Washington D.C. to protest factories' refusals to hire African Americans, which eventually led to President Roosevelt issuing an order to end all discrimination in the defense industries.
Executive Order 8802
In 1941 FDR passed it which prohibited discriminatory employment practices by fed agencies and all unions and companies engaged in war related work. It established the Fair Employment Practices Commission to enforce the new policy.
Servicemen's Readjustment Act
also known as GI Bill of Rights-1944- offered stipends covering tuition and living expenses to veterans attending vocational schools or college
For returning soldiers this provided Federal funds for education, businesses and new homes.
Gardens that citizens planted to raise their own vegetables, so that food could be sent to the troops.
..., In the 1940's - Riots that occurred mostly in Los Angeles, CA between white marines and young Mexican Americans. White sailors thought that the dress of "zoot suits" of the Mexican Americans was un-patriotic
Executive Order 9066
A presidential executive order issued during WWII by FDR that sent Japanese ethnic groups to internment camps.It was issued because of the fear for the country's safety and also Japanese-American's safety.
American-born children of Japanese immigrants; second generation Japanese Americans., refers to first generation immigrants, those who came to the U.S. from Japan
442nd Regiment Combat Team
all Nisei (American-born Japanese Americans) unit
- most decorated unit in US history
Korematsu v. United States
In cases of "emergency and peril" the Supreme Court sided with the government and held that the need to protect against espionage outweighed Korematsu's rights. It ruled that the Executive Order 9066 to place Japanese Americans in internment camps was constitutional.
Ex Parte Endo
1944 The court forbade the internment of Japanese-Americans born in the U. S. (Nisei); issued in conjunction with Korematsu v. United States
alliance of US, Great Britain, France, Russia during WWII
in World War II, the nations of Germany, Italy, and Japan, which had formed an alliance in 1936.
Battle of Stalingrad
a 1942-1943 battle of World War II, in which German forces were defeated in their attempt to capture the city of Stalingrad in the Soviet Union thanks to harsh winter; turning point of war in Eastern Europe
Nickname for the harsh climate of Russia that has defeated the armies of Hitler
Dwight D. Eisenhower
American General who began in North Africa and became the Commander of Allied forces in Europe.
one of the most colorful generals of World War II. During World War II he served in North Africa and Sicily before becoming the commander of the Third Army.
June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.
Beach in France that the Allies invaded on D-Day, Codenamed Operation Overlord, it was the long awaited Allied invasion of France and the opening of the Second Front during World War II. The initial invasion began on June 6, 1944.
Battle of the Bulge
World War II battle in December 1944 between Germany and Allied troops that was the last German offensive in the West.
May 8, 1945; victory in Europe Day when the Germans surrendered
Bataan death march
April 1942, American soldiers were forced to march miles to prison camps by their Japanese captors. It is called the Death March because so may of the prisoners died en route.
Battle of Coral Sea
Fought on May 7-8 1942; America claimed a strategic victory by stopping Japan's drive towards Australia
Battle of Midway
a turning point in the war in the Pacific theater against Japan
American commander during the war against Japan and headed American occupation governemnt of Japan after the War.
United States admiral of the Pacific fleet during World War II who used aircraft carriers to destroy the Japanese navy (1885-1966)
Battle of Leyte Gulf
1944 World War II naval battle between the United States and Japan. Largest naval engagement in history. Japanese navy was defeated. The battle was fought to retake the Philippines islands.
WWII strategy of conquering only certain Pacific islands that were important to the Allied advance toward Japan
Battle of Iwo Jima
2-4/1945: US invasion of Japanese home islands, only Japanese army left, but suicidal resistance: 30-80% US casualty rate, which convinces the US they need to use the nuclear bomb to persuade Japan to surrender
Battle of Okinawa
First Japanese Home island (only 340 miles from mainland Japan) to be invaded. Island of immense strategic value... Battle showed Japanese determination to resist invasion.
Japanese for "divine wind," a suicide mission in which young Japanese pilots intentionally flew their airplanes into U.S. fighting ships at sea
FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War
International organization founded in 1945 to promote world peace and cooperation. It replaced the League of Nations.
U.S, UK, France, China, Russia, main organ within the UN responsible for maintaining peace and security; composed of 5 permanent and 10 rotating members with two year terms elected by the General Assembly
the power that Russia, US, France, UK and China have to veto any resolution in the security council
code name for the secret United States project set up in 1942 to develop atomic bombs for use in World War II
J. Robert Oppenheimer
lead the Manhattan Project: the World War II effort to develop the first nuclear bomb. He was remembered as the "Father of the Atomic Bomb."
Hiroshima & Nagasaki
First and second cities to be hit by atomic bombs, they were bombed after Japan refused to surrender and accept the Potsdam Declaration. Hiroshima was bombed on August 6, 1945 and Nagasaki was bombed on August 9, 1945.
"Victory over Japan day" is the celebration of the Surrender of Japan, which was initially announced on August 15, 1945
Magic was an Allied cryptanalysis project during World War II; broke the Japanese military code (red, blue, purple)
Navajo language used as a code during WWII
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