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alternation of generations
all land plants have a life cycle that consists of 2 multicellular stages
egg + sperm = fertilization (diploid, 2n, zygote); divides mitotically; produces spores by meiosis; seedless vascular plant life cylce
land plants whose zygote develops within the tissues of the female parent, deriving nutrients from it
smallest, simplest sporophytes of all plant groups; must absorb water, sugars, & other nutrients from parental gametophytes
a haploid reproductive cell that gives rise to gametophytes, where swimming sperm fertilize eggs, yielding the diploid zygote which will grow into the sporophyte generation
5 crucial adaptaions to the success of seed plants
reduced gametophytes, heterospory, ovules & the production of eggs, pollen & production of sperm, seeds
megasporangium, megaspore, & other protective tissue around them; increases protection of egg & developing zygote -> increase reproductive fitness
male gametophyte containing 2 sperm nuclei; has waterproof coat that allows for transfer by wind; key adaptation to land
plants that have "naked" seeds that are enclosed in ovaries; often exposed on modified leaves that form cones (pines, spruces, firs, redwoods)
(flowering plants) have seeds enclosed in fruits, which are mature ovaries; account for 250,000 species or 90% of all plant species
major reproductive adaptation of the angiosperm; consists of sepals, petals, stamen, and carpels
male reproductive structure, producing microspores in the anthers that develop into pollen grains
female reproductive structure, producing megaspores & their products - female gametophytes with eggs
mature ovaries of the plant; as seeds develop from ovules after fertilization, the wall of the ovary thickens; helps disperse seeds of angiosperms
(about 70k species) have 1 cotyledon in the seed, parallel leaf veination & flowering parts in multiples of 3 (orchids, lilies, grasses)
(about 170k species) have 2 cotyledon in the seed, net leaf veination, & flowering parts usually in multiples of 4 or 5 (roses, peas, beans, oaks)
eukaryotes; multicellular heterotrophs; cell wall = chitin; bodies = hyphae; septa (cross walls); reproduced by spores; modes of nutrition = decomposers, parasites, mutualists
multicellular heterotrophs that obtain nutrients by absorption
fungi secrete hydrolytic enzymes, digest food outside their bodies, & absorb the small molecules
a partition separating two chambers, such as that between the nostrils or the chambers of the heart
(zygote fungi) terrestrial & include fast-growing molds, parasites & commensal symbionts (bread mold)
(club fungi) mushrooms & shelf fungi & are important decomposers of organic material
fungi play key roles in
nutrient cycling (decomposing of organic material such as cellulose & lignin), ecological interactions, human welfare
plant roots; delivers minerals to the plant while being supplied with organic nutrients (mutualism)
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