37 terms

CH 29 - 31 VOCAB

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alternation of generations
all land plants have a life cycle that consists of 2 multicellular stages
gametophyte
haploid plant cells that produce gametes
sporophyte
egg + sperm = fertilization (diploid, 2n, zygote); divides mitotically; produces spores by meiosis; seedless vascular plant life cylce
embryophytes
land plants whose zygote develops within the tissues of the female parent, deriving nutrients from it
gametangia
multicellular organ in plants that are responsible for the production of gametes
archegonia
female gametangia; produces 1 egg
antheridia
male gametangia; produces many sperm
nonvascular
plants lacking xylem nor phloem tissue; accounts for small size
bryophytes
smallest, simplest sporophytes of all plant groups; must absorb water, sugars, & other nutrients from parental gametophytes
sporangia
structure in which meiosis occurs in the sporophyte stage
spores
a haploid reproductive cell that gives rise to gametophytes, where swimming sperm fertilize eggs, yielding the diploid zygote which will grow into the sporophyte generation
seeds
multicellular plant embryos packaged with a food supply in a protective coat
5 crucial adaptaions to the success of seed plants
reduced gametophytes, heterospory, ovules & the production of eggs, pollen & production of sperm, seeds
heterospory
production of 2 types of spores
megaspores
produce female gametophytes, which produce eggs
microspores
produce male gametophytes, which contain sperm nuclei
ovule
megasporangium, megaspore, & other protective tissue around them; increases protection of egg & developing zygote -> increase reproductive fitness
pollen grain
male gametophyte containing 2 sperm nuclei; has waterproof coat that allows for transfer by wind; key adaptation to land
gymnosperms
plants that have "naked" seeds that are enclosed in ovaries; often exposed on modified leaves that form cones (pines, spruces, firs, redwoods)
angiosperms
(flowering plants) have seeds enclosed in fruits, which are mature ovaries; account for 250,000 species or 90% of all plant species
anthophyta
phylum in which flowering plants are classified
flower
major reproductive adaptation of the angiosperm; consists of sepals, petals, stamen, and carpels
stamen
male reproductive structure, producing microspores in the anthers that develop into pollen grains
carpels
female reproductive structure, producing megaspores & their products - female gametophytes with eggs
fruits
mature ovaries of the plant; as seeds develop from ovules after fertilization, the wall of the ovary thickens; helps disperse seeds of angiosperms
monocots
(about 70k species) have 1 cotyledon in the seed, parallel leaf veination & flowering parts in multiples of 3 (orchids, lilies, grasses)
eudicots
(about 170k species) have 2 cotyledon in the seed, net leaf veination, & flowering parts usually in multiples of 4 or 5 (roses, peas, beans, oaks)
fungi
eukaryotes; multicellular heterotrophs; cell wall = chitin; bodies = hyphae; septa (cross walls); reproduced by spores; modes of nutrition = decomposers, parasites, mutualists
multicellular heterotrophs that obtain nutrients by absorption
fungi secrete hydrolytic enzymes, digest food outside their bodies, & absorb the small molecules
hyphae
filaments that compose bodies of fungi & are entwined to form a mass, the MYCELIUM
septa
a partition separating two chambers, such as that between the nostrils or the chambers of the heart
Zygomycota phylum
(zygote fungi) terrestrial & include fast-growing molds, parasites & commensal symbionts (bread mold)
Ascomycota phylum
(sac fungi) produce sexual spores in sac-like structures called ASCI (yeast)
Basidiomycota phylum
(club fungi) mushrooms & shelf fungi & are important decomposers of organic material
fungi play key roles in
nutrient cycling (decomposing of organic material such as cellulose & lignin), ecological interactions, human welfare
Mycorrhizal fungi
plant roots; delivers minerals to the plant while being supplied with organic nutrients (mutualism)
Lichens
symbiotic associations of photosynthetic microorganisms (algae) embedded in a network of fungal hyphae ( rock/soil fungi )