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alternation of generations

all land plants have a life cycle that consists of 2 multicellular stages


haploid plant cells that produce gametes


egg + sperm = fertilization (diploid, 2n, zygote); divides mitotically; produces spores by meiosis; seedless vascular plant life cylce


land plants whose zygote develops within the tissues of the female parent, deriving nutrients from it


multicellular organ in plants that are responsible for the production of gametes


female gametangia; produces 1 egg


male gametangia; produces many sperm


plants lacking xylem nor phloem tissue; accounts for small size


smallest, simplest sporophytes of all plant groups; must absorb water, sugars, & other nutrients from parental gametophytes


structure in which meiosis occurs in the sporophyte stage


a haploid reproductive cell that gives rise to gametophytes, where swimming sperm fertilize eggs, yielding the diploid zygote which will grow into the sporophyte generation


multicellular plant embryos packaged with a food supply in a protective coat

5 crucial adaptaions to the success of seed plants

reduced gametophytes, heterospory, ovules & the production of eggs, pollen & production of sperm, seeds


production of 2 types of spores


produce female gametophytes, which produce eggs


produce male gametophytes, which contain sperm nuclei


megasporangium, megaspore, & other protective tissue around them; increases protection of egg & developing zygote -> increase reproductive fitness

pollen grain

male gametophyte containing 2 sperm nuclei; has waterproof coat that allows for transfer by wind; key adaptation to land


plants that have "naked" seeds that are enclosed in ovaries; often exposed on modified leaves that form cones (pines, spruces, firs, redwoods)


(flowering plants) have seeds enclosed in fruits, which are mature ovaries; account for 250,000 species or 90% of all plant species


phylum in which flowering plants are classified


major reproductive adaptation of the angiosperm; consists of sepals, petals, stamen, and carpels


male reproductive structure, producing microspores in the anthers that develop into pollen grains


female reproductive structure, producing megaspores & their products - female gametophytes with eggs


mature ovaries of the plant; as seeds develop from ovules after fertilization, the wall of the ovary thickens; helps disperse seeds of angiosperms


(about 70k species) have 1 cotyledon in the seed, parallel leaf veination & flowering parts in multiples of 3 (orchids, lilies, grasses)


(about 170k species) have 2 cotyledon in the seed, net leaf veination, & flowering parts usually in multiples of 4 or 5 (roses, peas, beans, oaks)


eukaryotes; multicellular heterotrophs; cell wall = chitin; bodies = hyphae; septa (cross walls); reproduced by spores; modes of nutrition = decomposers, parasites, mutualists

multicellular heterotrophs that obtain nutrients by absorption

fungi secrete hydrolytic enzymes, digest food outside their bodies, & absorb the small molecules


filaments that compose bodies of fungi & are entwined to form a mass, the MYCELIUM


a partition separating two chambers, such as that between the nostrils or the chambers of the heart

Zygomycota phylum

(zygote fungi) terrestrial & include fast-growing molds, parasites & commensal symbionts (bread mold)

Ascomycota phylum

(sac fungi) produce sexual spores in sac-like structures called ASCI (yeast)

Basidiomycota phylum

(club fungi) mushrooms & shelf fungi & are important decomposers of organic material

fungi play key roles in

nutrient cycling (decomposing of organic material such as cellulose & lignin), ecological interactions, human welfare

Mycorrhizal fungi

plant roots; delivers minerals to the plant while being supplied with organic nutrients (mutualism)


symbiotic associations of photosynthetic microorganisms (algae) embedded in a network of fungal hyphae ( rock/soil fungi )

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