APUSH Study Guide Period 4

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Federalists
Political party created in the 1790s. Led by Alexander Hamilton, the Federalists favored a stronger national government. Supported primarily by the bankers and moneyed interests.
Democratic-Republicans
Political Party created in the 1790s. Led by Thomas Jefferson, the Democratic-Republicansfavored limited government and states rights. Supported primarily by the "common man."
Election of 1800 (Revolution of 1800)
Election that led to a peaceful transfer of power from the Federalist Party to the Democratic Republican Party.
Era of Good Feelings
The period from 1816-1824 characterized by nationalism and one-party control of the nation. The decline of the Federalist Party and the end of the War of 1812 gave rise to a time of political. cooperation.The Era of Good Feelings is associated with the presidency of James Monroe.
Democrats
Political party that brought Andrew Jackson into office in 1829. Democrats supported Jeffersonian ideas of limited government, drawing its support from the "common man."
Whig Party
Political Party created in 1834 as a coalition of anti-Jackson political leaders.
midnight judges
Federalist judges appointed by John Adams between the time he lost the election of 1800 and the time he left office in March 1801.
John Marshall
Appointed to the Supreme Court by John Adams in 1801, he served as chief justice until 1835. His legal decisions gave the Supreme Court more power, strengthened the federal government and protecting private property.
Marbury v. Madison, 1803
Supreme Court decision that declared a section of the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional and established the principle of judicial review.
judicial review
The power of the Supreme Court to review the constitutionality of laws passed by Congress.
McCulloch v. Maryland, 1819
A Supreme Court decision that upheld the constitutionality of the Bank of the United States. In writing that the state of Maryland did not have the right to tax the federal bank, John Marshall wrote, "The power to tax is the power to destroy."
Gibbons v. Ogden, 1824
Supreme Court decision stating that the authority of Congress is absolute in matters of interstate commerce.
market economy
Economic system based on the unregulated buying and selling of goods and services. Prices are determined by the forces of supply and demand.
Albert Gallatin
Treasury secretary under Thomas Jefferson who favored limited government and reduced the federal debt by cutting spending.
Embargo Act, 1807
In order to pressure Britain and France to accept neutral trading rights, Jefferson issued a government ordered ban on international trade. The Embargo went into effect in 1808 and closed down virtually all U.S. trade with foreign nations.
Panic of 1819
Financial panic that began when the Second Bank of the U.S. tightened credit and recalled government loans.
Panic of 1837
Economic collapse caused primarily by President Jackson's destruction of the Second Bank of the United States.
debates over the tariff and internal improvements
Northerners generally favored higher tariffs and internal improvement at federal expense. Southerners generally opposed higher tariffs and internal improvements at federal expense
southern defense of slavery
Southerners held a widespread belief that blacks were inferior to whites and that slavery was good for blacks. Southerners also understood that the southern cotton economy was dependent on slave labor.
Slave Codes
Laws that established the status of slaves denying them basic rights and classifying them as the property of slaveowners.
Calhoun's Speech in the U.S. Senate, 1837
John C. Calhoun, a senator from South Carolina, outlined proslavery arguments on the floor of the U.S. Senate, arguing that the stability of societies throughout history had been based on slavery.
Second Great Awakening
An upsurge in religious activity that began around 1800 and was characterized by emotional revival meetings. The Second Great Awakening led to several reform movements designed to make life better in this world.
Charles Finney
Presbyterian minister who is credited with starting the Second Great Awakening and is known as the "Father of Modern Revivalism." Finney advocated the abolition of slavery and equal education for women and African Americans.
Seneca Falls Convention, 1848
The first convention in America for women's rights. Held in Seneca Falls, NY.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Advocate of women's rights, including the right to vote, who organized (with Lucretia Mott) the first women's rights convention at Seneca Falls, NY.
Frances (Franny) Wright
Scottish-born woman who became a vocal advocate as a U.S. citizen for racial equality, equality for women, birth control, and open sexuality.
Dorothea Dix
Pioneer in the movement for special treatment for the mentally ill.
Horace Mann
Massachusetts educator who called for publicly funded education for all children.
Utopian communities
Idealistic reform movement based on the belief that a perfect society could be created on Earth. Significant Utopian experiments were established at New Harmony, Indiana, Brook Farm, Massachusetts, and Oneida Community in New York.
James Forten
African American businessman from Philadelphia who advocated racial integration and equal rights during the Jeffersonian era.
American Colonization Society, 1817
Organization established to end slavery gradually by helping individual slave owners liberate their slaves and then transport the freed slaves to Africa.
William Lloyd Garrison
Radical abolitionist in Massachusetts who published The Liberator, an antislavery newspaper.
Sojourner Truth
Former slave (freed in 1827) who became a leading abolitionist and feminist.
Liberty Party, 1840
First antislavery political party in the United States.
Elijah Lovejoy
Abolitionist leader who was killed in Alton, Illinois, by a proslavery mob attacking his newspaper press to keep him from publishing.
Frederick Douglass
Former slave who became a significant leader in the abolitionist movement. Known for his great oratorical skills.
neoclassicism
Revival in architecture and art in the late 1700s and early 1800s that was inspired by Greek and Roman models.
Hudson River School, 1825-1875
The first native school of painting in the U.S. Attracting artists who were rebelling against neoclassicism, Hudson River artists painted primarily landscapes.
transcendentalism
Philosophical and literary movement that believed God existed within human beings and nature. Transcendentalists believed intuition was the highest source of knowledge.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Philosopher, writer, and poet who became a central figure in the American transcendentalist movement.
Henry David Thoreau
Writer and naturalist. With Ralph Waldo Emerson, he became America's best known transcendentalist.
John James Audubon
Naturalist and painter who became well-known for his attempt to document all types of American birds.
Richard Allen
African American minister who established the first independent African American denomination in the United States, the African Methodist Episcopalian Church.
David Walker
African American who wanted slaves to rebel against their own masters. Walker relied on sailors and ship's officers sympathetic to the abolitionist cause to transfer his message to southern ports.
slave music
Music created by slaves for the purpose of religion, work, and recreation. Slave music became the foundation for later styles of music known as gospel, jazz, and blues.
Samuel Slater
Known as the "Father of the American Industrial Revolution," Slater brought British textile technology to the United States.
Cyrus McCormick
Developed the mechanical reaper in 1831, a machine that revolutionized farming by increasing crops yields and decreasing the number of field hands needed for the harvest.
John Deere
Invented the steel plow in 1837, which revolutionized farming, The steel plow broke up soil without the soil getting stuck to the plow
Lowell system
A method of factory management that evolved in the textile mills of Lowell, Massachusetts, which were owned by the Boston Manufacturing Company and named in honor of the company's founder, Francis Lowell. The Lowell system was the first example of a planned automated factory.
Baldwin Locomotive Works
A company located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, that built railroad locomotives.
anthracite coal mining
Coal mines in Pennsylvania produced anthracite, which became the most popular fuel for heating homes in the northern United States until the 1950s when it was replaced by oil and gas burning heating systems.
interchangeable parts
Parts that were identical and which could be substituted for one another. Developed by Eli Whitney for the manufacturing of muskets.
American System, 1815
Henry Clay's proposal to make the U.S. economically self-sufficient. The American System called for protective tariffs, internal improvements at federal expense, and the creation of a Second Bank of the United States.
Erie Canal, 1817-1825
A 350-mile canal built by the state of New York that stretched from Buffalo to Albany. The canal revolutionized shipping in New York.
turnpikes
A road in which tolls were collected at gates set up along the road.
National Road (Cumberland Road), 1811
First significant road built in the U.S. at the expense of the federal government. The road stretched from the Potomac River to the Ohio River.
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, 1828
First steam railroad commissioned in the U.S.
Mason-Dixon Line
The boundary between Pennsylvania and Maryland that marked the division between free and slave states before the Civil War.
cult of domesticity
The belief that a woman's proper role in life was found in domestic pursuits (raising children, taking care of a home).
Lydia Maria Child
American writer who created novels and domestic manuals that attacked male dominance and white supremacy. She was also an abolitionist, Indian rights activist, and opponent of American expansionism.
National Trades' Union, 1834
The first national association of trade unions.
Second Bank of the United States, 1816
Privately-owned bank that operated as both a commercial bank and fiscal agent for the U.S. government. The Second Bank of the U.S was established in 1816 under a charter that was supposed to last twenty years.
Tariff of 1816
The first protective tariff in U.S. history. The tariff was designed primarily to help America's textile industry.
Tariff of Abominations, 1828
A tariff with such high rates that it set off tension between northerners and southerners over tariff issues.
Destruction of the Second Bank of the United States, 1833
President Jackson, who thought the Bank of the U.S. represented special interests at the expense of the common man, ordered federal deposits placed in state banks ("pet" banks) to deplete the funds of the national bank.
John C. Calhoun
South Carolina political leader who defended slavery and advocated the doctrine of nullification, a policy in which a state could nullify federal law.
Daniel Webster
Massachusetts political leader who advocated a strong Union and thought the doctrine of nullification was a threat to the Union.
Henry Clay
Political leader from Kentucky and leading member of the Whig Party who worked to keep the Union together through compromise.
Louisiana Purchase, 1803
The U.S. purchased the Louisiana Territory from France for $15 million, doubling the size of the U.S. and giving the U.S. full control of the Mississippi River.
Lewis and Clark expedition, 1804-1806
Expedition to explore the Louisiana Territory led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark.
War Hawks
Members of Congress from the West and South elected in 1810 who wanted war with Britain in the hopes of annexing new territory and ending British trade with the Indians of the Northwest.
War of 1812, 1812-1815
War between the U.S. and Great Britain caused primarily by the British violation of American neutral rights on the high seas. The war ended with an agreement of "status quo ante" (a return to how things were before the war).
Adams-Onís Treaty, 1819
Treaty between the U.S. and Spain that ceded Florida to the U.S.
Monroe Doctrine, 1823
President Monroe's unilateral declaration that the Americas would be be closed to further European colonization. The doctrine also stated the U.S. would not allow European interference in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere.
Webster-Ashburton Treaty, 1842
Treaty between the U.S. Great Britain that established the border between Canada and northeastern Maine.
Annexation of Texas, 1845
Through a joint resolution of Congress, the U.S. annexed and granted statehood to the Republic of Texas, an independent nation that had won its independence from Mexico in 1836.
Oregon Treaty, 1846
After years of conflict over ownership of the Pacific Northwest, the U.S. and England established the boundary at 49º latitude.
Manifest Destiny
Belief that the U.S. was destined to expand across the North American continent.
Mexican-American War, 1846-48
War caused by a territorial dispute between the U.S. and Mexico that led to Mexico ceding land to the U.S.
Mexican Cession, 1848
The region of the present-day southwestern United States that Mexico ceded to the U.S. in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
Chinese trade
In 1844 the U.S. secured a treaty with China that gave the United States the trading privileges already enjoyed by many other foreign powers.
Hartford Convention, 1814
Meeting of Federalists during the War of 1812 in which anti-war Federalists threatened to secede from the Union. The convention was generally viewed by some as treasonous and the Federalist Party began to die out.
South Carolina Nullification Crisis, 1832-1833
After South Carolina declared a federal tariff null and void, President Jackson obtained a Force Bill to use military action against South Carolina. The crisis ended with a compromise to lower tariffs over an extended time.
Tecumseh
Shawnee leader who established an Indian confederacy that he hoped would be a barrier to white expansion. Defeated at he Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811 by U.S. forces led by General William Henry Harrison.
Indian Removal Act, 1830
Law that provided for the removal of all ndian tribes east of the Mississippi and the purchase of Indian lands for resettlement.
Black Hawk
Sauk leader who brought his people back to their land in Illinois after their removal. Black Hawk was captured in 1832 after U.S. troops massacred his followers.
Worcester v. Georgia, 1832
A Supreme Court ruling that declared a state did not have the power to enforce laws on lands that were not under state jurisdiction, John Marshall wrote that the state of Georgia did not have the power to remove Indians.
Trail of Tears, 1838
Forced march of the Cherokee people from Georgia to Indian Territory in the winter of 1838. Thousands of Cherokees died.
Seminole Wars, 1814-1819, 1835-1842
The Seminole of Florida opposed removal and resisted U.S. troops.
Talmadge Amendement, 1819
An amendment to a statehood bill for Missouri that would have banned slavery from Missouri. The amendment created a deadlock in Congress that led to the Missouri Compromise.
Missouri Compromise, 1820
Law proposed by Henry Clay admitting Missouri to the U.S. as a slave state and Maine as a free state. The law also banned slavery in the Louisiana Territory north of latitude 36º30′
American Anti-Slavery Society
Abolitionist society founded by William Lloyd Garrison. Included Frederick Douglass as a significant leader of the society.
Essex Junto
A group of Federalists originating in Essex County, Massachusetts, who opposed going to war against the British in the War of 1812. Supported the Hartford Convention, which led to the demise of the Federalist Party