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33 terms

CHM 1111 Chapter 4

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solution
homogeneous mixture
solutes
what is dissolved in the solvent
solvent
what the solutes dissolve in
aqueous
water as solvent
non-aqueous
something other than water as solvent
polar
containing an unequal distribution of electrons (will dissolve in water)
hydration shells
water molecules arranges to neutralize the charges on dissolved ions
electrolytes
substances that dissolve in water to generate ions
strong
completely dissociating
weak
incompletely dissociating (equilibrium)
non-polar
containing equally-distributed electrons (will not dissolve in water)
non-electrolytes
substances that dissolve in water (polar) but do not dissociate into ions
molarity
moles of solute per liter of solution
m/m % solution
g solute/g solution x 100
m/v % solution
g solute/mL solution x 100
stock solution
concentrated solution from which dilutions can be made
overall equation
all reactants and products as undissociated neutral compounds
complete ionic equation
all reactants and products in their proper forms in solution
net ionic equation
complete ionic equation with spectator ions removed
spectator ions
ions that do not participate in reactions
precipitation reaction
a reaction that yields an insoluble product from two solutions
Arrhenius acid
donates H+ ions to solution
Arrhenius base
donates OH- ions to solution
Brønsted-Lowry acid
proton donor
Brønsted -Lowry base
proton acceptor
polyprotic acid
acid capable of donating more than one proton per molecule to solution (H₂SO₄)
monoprotic acid
acid able to donate only one proton per molecule to solution (HCl)
titration
procedure in which carefully-measured known concentrations are added to a reaction to determine the concentration of an unknown
titrant
solution of known concentration
equivalence point
point at which reaction in a titration is complete
endpoint
point at which indicator changes color
standard solution
solution whose concentration is known precisely
indicator
compound that changes color when the endpoint of a titration is reached