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homogeneous mixture


what is dissolved in the solvent


what the solutes dissolve in


water as solvent


something other than water as solvent


containing an unequal distribution of electrons (will dissolve in water)

hydration shells

water molecules arranges to neutralize the charges on dissolved ions


substances that dissolve in water to generate ions


completely dissociating


incompletely dissociating (equilibrium)


containing equally-distributed electrons (will not dissolve in water)


substances that dissolve in water (polar) but do not dissociate into ions


moles of solute per liter of solution

m/m % solution

g solute/g solution x 100

m/v % solution

g solute/mL solution x 100

stock solution

concentrated solution from which dilutions can be made

overall equation

all reactants and products as undissociated neutral compounds

complete ionic equation

all reactants and products in their proper forms in solution

net ionic equation

complete ionic equation with spectator ions removed

spectator ions

ions that do not participate in reactions

precipitation reaction

a reaction that yields an insoluble product from two solutions

Arrhenius acid

donates H+ ions to solution

Arrhenius base

donates OH- ions to solution

Brønsted-Lowry acid

proton donor

Brønsted -Lowry base

proton acceptor

polyprotic acid

acid capable of donating more than one proton per molecule to solution (H₂SO₄)

monoprotic acid

acid able to donate only one proton per molecule to solution (HCl)


procedure in which carefully-measured known concentrations are added to a reaction to determine the concentration of an unknown


solution of known concentration

equivalence point

point at which reaction in a titration is complete


point at which indicator changes color

standard solution

solution whose concentration is known precisely


compound that changes color when the endpoint of a titration is reached

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