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Which of the following European powers seized territories of the Ottoman Empire
in the early decades of the 18th century?
In the later 1700s, Russia
A) became the primary ally of the Ottoman Empire among the European powers.
B) withdrew from the territories they had seized along the Crimea.
C) conquered Constantinople and established a port on the Mediterranean.
D) became the main threat to the Ottoman Empire's survival.
E) partitioned the Ottoman Empire much as Poland had been divided.
Which of the following states first achieved independence from the Ottoman Empire?
The Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II
A) attempted to rid the Ottoman Empire of Western influences.
B) successfully eliminated the Janissary corps as a military and political influence.
C) attempted to restore absolutism and destroy the Western-style constitution of his
D) was toppled from the throne by a Janissary revolt.
E) was known for his support of traditional Ottoman practices.
In what year was the revised constitution introduced as part of the Tanzimat reforms?
The Ottoman Society for Union and Progress
A) supported the reform efforts of Sultan Abdul Hamid.
B) led the rebellion that overthrew Sultan Abdul Hamid.
C) represented the older members of the ayan.
D) was also known as the Arab League.
E) wanted a return to traditional Muslim leadership.
The Napoleonic invasion of 1798 signaled the demise of what group's rule in Egypt?
A) The Fatimids
B) The Umayyads
C) The Mamluks
D) The Almoravids
E) The Mughals
By 1811, what ruler had established his dominance over Egypt?
A) Murad, commander of the Mamluks
B) Napoleon, French emperor
C) Muhammad Ali, an officer in the Ottoman army
D) Nurhaci, Almoravid military commander
E) Robert Clive, British governor
What nation intervened militarily in Egyptian affairs in 1882?
A) The Ottoman Empire
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